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Chemical Compound Review

apocynin     1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy- phenyl)ethanone

Synonyms: Apocynine, Acetoguaiacon, Acetovanillon, Acetovanilone, Acetovanyllon, ...
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Disease relevance of Acetoguaiacon


Psychiatry related information on Acetoguaiacon

  • The former toxicity was resistant to the specific NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin and was inhibited by Humanin (HN), a newly identified neuroprotective factor against Alzheimer's disease (AD)-relevant insults, but not by insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) [5].

High impact information on Acetoguaiacon


Chemical compound and disease context of Acetoguaiacon


Biological context of Acetoguaiacon


Anatomical context of Acetoguaiacon


Associations of Acetoguaiacon with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Acetoguaiacon


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Acetoguaiacon


  1. Inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase activity blocks vascular endothelial growth factor overexpression and neovascularization during ischemic retinopathy. Al-Shabrawey, M., Bartoli, M., El-Remessy, A.B., Platt, D.H., Matragoon, S., Behzadian, M.A., Caldwell, R.W., Caldwell, R.B. Am. J. Pathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Sulphydryl blocker induced small intestinal inflammation in rats: a new model mimicking Crohn's disease. Rachmilewitz, D., Okon, E., Karmeli, F. Gut (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Apocynin improves the efficacy of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor in experimental emphysema. Stolk, J., Rossie, W., Dijkman, J.H. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Enhancement of cardiac oxidative stress by tachycardia and its critical role in cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Yamamoto, E., Lai, Z.F., Yamashita, T., Tanaka, T., Kataoka, K., Tokutomi, Y., Ito, T., Ogawa, H., Kim-Mitsuyama, S. J. Hypertens. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Amino- and carboxyl-terminal mutants of presenilin 1 cause neuronal cell death through distinct toxic mechanisms: Study of 27 different presenilin 1 mutants. Hashimoto, Y., Tsukamoto, E., Niikura, T., Yamagishi, Y., Ishizaka, M., Aiso, S., Takashima, A., Nishimoto, I. J. Neurosci. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Genetic evidence for direct sensing of phenolic compounds by the VirA protein of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Lee, Y.W., Jin, S., Sim, W.S., Nester, E.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Angiotensin II induces monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Chen, X.L., Tummala, P.E., Olbrych, M.T., Alexander, R.W., Medford, R.M. Circ. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. cAMP-response element-binding protein mediates acid-induced NADPH oxidase NOX5-S expression in Barrett esophageal adenocarcinoma cells. Fu, X., Beer, D.G., Behar, J., Wands, J., Lambeth, D., Cao, W. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. NADPH oxidase-derived overproduction of reactive oxygen species impairs postischemic neovascularization in mice with type 1 diabetes. Ebrahimian, T.G., Heymes, C., You, D., Blanc-Brude, O., Mees, B., Waeckel, L., Duriez, M., Vilar, J., Brandes, R.P., Levy, B.I., Shah, A.M., Silvestre, J.S. Am. J. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Microglia proliferation is regulated by hydrogen peroxide from NADPH oxidase. Mander, P.K., Jekabsone, A., Brown, G.C. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Angiotensin II-induced over-activation of p47phox in fibroblasts from hypertensives: which role in the enhanced ERK1/2 responsiveness to angiotensin II? Papparella, I., Ceolotto, G., Lenzini, L., Mazzoni, M., Franco, L., Sartori, M., Ciccariello, L., Semplicini, A. J. Hypertens. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Effects of NADPH oxidase inhibitor in diabetic nephropathy. Asaba, K., Tojo, A., Onozato, M.L., Goto, A., Quinn, M.T., Fujita, T., Wilcox, C.S. Kidney Int. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. NAD(P)H oxidase contributes to the progression of remote hepatic parenchymal injury and endothelial dysfunction, but not microvascular perfusion deficits. Dorman, R.B., Wunder, C., Saba, H., Shoemaker, J.L., Macmillan-Crow, L.A., Brock, R.W. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Critical role of bradykinin-eNOS and oxidative stress-LOX-1 pathway in cardiovascular remodeling under chronic angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition. Kobayashi, N., Honda, T., Yoshida, K., Nakano, S., Ohno, T., Tsubokou, Y., Matsuoka, H. Atherosclerosis (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor prevents blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular hypertrophy in aldosterone-infused rats. Park, Y.M., Park, M.Y., Suh, Y.L., Park, J.B. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha increases airway smooth muscle oxidants production through a NADPH oxidase-like system to enhance myosin light chain phosphorylation and contractility. Thabut, G., El-Benna, J., Samb, A., Corda, S., Megret, J., Leseche, G., Vicaut, E., Aubier, M., Boczkowski, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Proapoptotic and redox state-related signaling of reactive oxygen species generated by transformed fibroblasts. Schimmel, M., Bauer, G. Oncogene (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Antiarthritic activity of the newly developed neutrophil oxidative burst antagonist apocynin. 't Hart, B.A., Simons, J.M., Knaan-Shanzer, S., Bakker, N.P., Labadie, R.P. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of apocynin on ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine in asthmatics. Peters, E.A., Hiltermann, J.T., Stolk, J. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Cytotoxicity of myeloperoxidase/nitrite-oxidized low-density lipoprotein toward endothelial cells is due to a high 7beta-hydroxycholesterol to 7-ketocholesterol ratio. Steffen, Y., Wiswedel, I., Peter, D., Schewe, T., Sies, H. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Effect of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin on septic lung injury in guinea pigs. Wang, W., Suzuki, Y., Tanigaki, T., Rank, D.R., Raffin, T.A. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Apocynin prevents cyclooxygenase 2 expression in human monocytes through NADPH oxidase and glutathione redox-dependent mechanisms. Barbieri, S.S., Cavalca, V., Eligini, S., Brambilla, M., Caiani, A., Tremoli, E., Colli, S. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Apocynin normalizes hyperreactivity to phenylephrine in mesenteric arteries from cholesterol-fed mice by improving endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor response. Matsumoto, T., Miyamori, K., Kobayashi, T., Kamata, K. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Involvement of NADPH oxidase isoforms and Src family kinases in CD95-dependent hepatocyte apoptosis. Reinehr, R., Becker, S., Eberle, A., Grether-Beck, S., Häussinger, D. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. NADPH oxidase-dependent acid production in airway epithelial cells. Schwarzer, C., Machen, T.E., Illek, B., Fischer, H. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Molecular characterization of a superoxide-generating NAD(P)H oxidase in the ventilatory muscles. Javesghani, D., Magder, S.A., Barreiro, E., Quinn, M.T., Hussain, S.N. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. NADPH oxidase is involved in angiotensin II-induced apoptosis in H9C2 cardiac muscle cells: effects of apocynin. Qin, F., Patel, R., Yan, C., Liu, W. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Hyperglycemia activates JAK2 signaling pathway in human failing myocytes via angiotensin II-mediated oxidative stress. Modesti, A., Bertolozzi, I., Gamberi, T., Marchetta, M., Lumachi, C., Coppo, M., Moroni, F., Toscano, T., Lucchese, G., Gensini, G.F., Modesti, P.A. Diabetes (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Role of reactive oxygen species in TGF-beta1-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in renal tubular epithelial cells. Rhyu, D.Y., Yang, Y., Ha, H., Lee, G.T., Song, J.S., Uh, S.T., Lee, H.B. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Angiotensin II and endothelin-1 regulate MAP kinases through different redox-dependent mechanisms in human vascular smooth muscle cells. Touyz, R.M., Yao, G., Viel, E., Amiri, F., Schiffrin, E.L. J. Hypertens. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Superoxide anion is elevated in sympathetic neurons in DOCA-salt hypertension via activation of NADPH oxidase. Dai, X., Cao, X., Kreulen, D.L. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  32. Superoxide does not mediate the acute vasoconstrictor effects of angiotensin II: a study in human and porcine arteries. Schuijt, M.P., Tom, B., de Vries, R., Saxena, P.R., Sluiter, W., van Kats, J.P., Danser, A.H. J. Hypertens. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Inhibitors of NADPH oxidase reduce the organ injury in hemorrhagic shock. Abdelrahman, M., Mazzon, E., Bauer, M., Bauer, I., Delbosc, S., Cristol, J.P., Patel, N.S., Cuzzocrea, S., Thiemermann, C. Shock (2005) [Pubmed]
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