The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Mannosylated niosomes as adjuvant-carrier system for oral mucosal immunization.

The aim of the present study was to develop mannosylated niosomes as oral vaccine delivery carrier and adjuvant for the induction of humoral, cellular, and mucosal immunity. Tetanus toxoid (TT) loaded niosomes composed of sorbiton monostearate (Span 60), cholesterol, and stearylamine were prepared by the reverse-phase evaporation method. They were coated with a modified polysaccharide o-palmitoyl mannan (OPM) to protect them from bile salts caused dissolution and enzymatic degradation in the gastrointestinal tract and to enhance their affinity toward the antigen presenting cells of Peyer's patches. Prepared niosomes were characterized in vitro for their size, shape, entrapment efficiency, ligand binding specificity, and stability in simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid. OPM-coated niosomes were found to more stable in simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The immune stimulating activity was studied by measuring serum IgG titer, IgG2a/IgG1 ratio in serum, and sIgA levels in intestinal and salivary secretions following oral administration of niosomal formulations in albino rats. The results were compared with alum-adsorbed TT following oral and intramuscular administration, and it was observed that OPM-coated niosomes produced better IgG levels as compared to plain uncoated niosomes and alum-adsorbed TT upon oral administration. Oral niosomes also elicited a significant mucosal immune response (sIgA levels in mucosal secretions). The developed formulations also elicited a combined serum IgG2a/IgG1 response, suggesting that they were capable of eliciting both humoral and cellular response. The study signifies the potential of OPM-coated niosomes as an oral vaccine delivery carrier and adjuvant. The proposed system is simple, stable, and cost-effective and may be clinically acceptable.[1]


  1. Mannosylated niosomes as adjuvant-carrier system for oral mucosal immunization. Jain, S., Vyas, S.P. Journal of liposome research (2006) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities