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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Heterogeneity of prostaglandin H2/thromboxane A2 receptors: distinct subtypes mediate vascular smooth muscle contraction and platelet aggregation.

Studies of the hierarchies of agonist and antagonist affinity for the prostaglandin (PG)H2/thromboxane (Tx)A2 receptor have been performed to establish whether distinct receptor subtypes exist in platelets and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). They have yielded conflicting results. The pattern of homologous desensitization of phospholipase C activation and [Ca++i] increase induced by the PGH2/TxA2 agonist U46619 in rat aortic SMC was similar to that previously observed in human platelets: rapid desensitization of both responses followed by a delayed loss of binding sites from the cell membrane. Recently, the pattern of receptor inactivation by the antagonist ligand, GR 32191, has identified two subtypes in platelets. GR 32191 binds reversibly (GRr) to a site that mediates platelet shape change and an increase [Ca++i] and irreversibly (GRirr) to a site linked to phospholipase C activation and aggregation. In contrast to platelets, studies of ligand dissociation only identified GRr sites in rat aortic SMC and GR 32191 failed to inactivate PGH2/TxA2 receptors as detected by the PGH2/TxA2 receptor antagonist, [3H]SQ 29548. Inhibition of U46619-induced contraction of both rat aortic and human saphenous vein was competitive, consistent with the absence of GRirr sites in VSMC. Platelet activating factor, which heterologously desensitizes U46619-evoked phospholipase C activation in platelets, had no such effect in VSMC. The biochemical events attendant to PGH2/TxA2 receptor desensitization are similar in SMC and platelets. However, both the pattern of receptor inactivation by GR 32191 and of heterologous desensitization by PAF, suggest that VSMC lack the receptor subtype that transduces aggregation of platelets.[1]


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