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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Evidence for cAMP and cholate extrusion in C6 rat glioma cells by a common anion efflux pump.

C6 rat glioma cells were investigated for a shared unidirectional efflux system for cAMP and cholate. [3H]Cholate was accumulated (at pH 7.3) by scraped C6 cell monolayers via a process which was rapid initially and then slowed to a steady state after 10 min at 37 degrees C. Release of the accumulated label was also rapid (t1/2 = 2 min), was essentially complete within 15 min, and exhibited energy dependence since it could be blocked by antimycin A. Half-maximal inhibition by antimycin A occurred at 0.87 microM, and maximal inhibition exceeded 90%. Various other compounds also inhibited [3H]cholate efflux. The most effective was prostaglandin A1, which reduced efflux half-maximally at a concentration of 0.14 microM. Other inhibitors, prostaglandin B1, verapamil, probenecid, and bromosulfophathalein, produced half-maximal inhibition at 5.3, 42, 78, and 110 microM, respectively. Cholate efflux was also blocked by 40 microM vincristine. Initial influx of [3H]cholate was not affected by antimycin A, prostaglandin A1, or vincristine and hence was attributed to a process separate from efflux. C6 rat glioma cells also have the ability to produce high intracellular levels of cAMP in response to isoproterenol and to release cAMP into the medium via a carrier-mediated efflux system. When measured under the same conditions employed for cholate efflux, the efflux of cAMP was found to be sensitive to each of the inhibitors of cholate efflux. Moreover, plots of cAMP efflux versus varying concentrations of prostaglandin A1, antimycin A, prostaglandin B1, verapamil, and probenecid showed similar response curves and comparable values for half-maximal These results indicate that C6 rat glioma cells contain a unidirectional efflux pump for cholate and that this same system also appears to mediate the unidirectional efflux of cAMP. These findings support the hypothesis that various cells contain efflux pumps which exhibit a broad specificity for large organic anions of diverse structure and that the function of these efflux pumps resides primarily in cellular anion detoxification. Analogous efflux pumps for hydrophobic drugs are overproduced in tumor cells exhibiting multidrug resistance.[1]


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