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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Identification of a highly glycosylated methotrexate membrane carrier in K562 human erythroleukemia cells up-regulated for tetrahydrofolate cofactor and methotrexate transport.

A K562 human erythroleukemia line (designated K562.4CF) was selected for increased tetrahydrofolate cofactor transport in a growth-limiting concentration (0.4 nM) of (6R,S)-5-formyltetrahydrofolate. K562.4CF cells exhibited elevated methotrexate uptake relative to parental cells, attributable to a 10-fold increased influx Vmax. The rate of methotrexate efflux in K562.4CF cells was somewhat increased (55%) as well. The transport system in K562.4CF cells had similar and high apparent binding affinities for methotrexate and 5-formyltetrahydrofolate and a markedly reduced affinity for folic acid, properties typically associated with the "classical" methotrexate/tetrahydrofolate cofactor transporter in tumor cells. Methotrexate uptake in K562.4CF cells decreased substantially under nonselective conditions; high levels of transport were restored in 0.4 nM 5-formyltetrahydrofolate. Treatment of parental and K562.4CF cells with N-hydroxysuccinimide methotrexate inhibited methotrexate influx. N-Hydroxysuccinimide-[3H]methotrexate (700 nM) radiolabeled a broadly migrating band at Mr 76,000-85,000. Incorporation from N-hydroxysuccinimide-[3H]methotrexate into this band was increased 7-fold in K562.4CF over parental cells and was blocked by unlabeled methotrexate, (6S)-5-formyltetrahydrofolate, or, to a lesser extent, folic acid. Whereas incubation with endoglycosidase F had no effect on the electrophoretic migration of the labeled protein, treatment with endoglycosidase F and glycopeptidase F, or endo-beta-galactosidase, reduced the apparent molecular weight to Mr approximately 52,000 or approximately 58,000, respectively. These results suggest that the high-affinity transporter in K562.4CF cells is an N-linked glycoprotein containing internal beta-galactosidic linkages in, or immediately after, unbranched poly-N-acetyllactosamine sequences. Differences in the level of glycosylation may, in part, account for the disparity in the apparent sizes of the homologous folate transport proteins from human and murine cells.[1]


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