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Chemical Compound Review

Mexate     (2S)-2-[[4-[(2,4- diaminopteridin-6...

Synonyms: Emtexate, Emthexat, Lantarel, Metolate, Metrotex, ...
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Disease relevance of methotrexate


Psychiatry related information on methotrexate


High impact information on methotrexate


Chemical compound and disease context of methotrexate


Biological context of methotrexate


Anatomical context of methotrexate

  • A similar organization is found in independently isolated methotrexate-resistant cell lines, in the parental sensitive cell line and in several inbred mouse strains, indicating that this organization represents that of the natural gene [29].
  • Among patients with increased risk, radiation offered greater protection to the central nervous system than methotrexate (P = 0.03); there was no difference in the rate of hematologic relapse [30].
  • RESULTS: Recipients of cord blood were younger than recipients of bone marrow (median age, 5 years vs. 8 years; P<0.001), weighed less (median weight, 17 kg vs. 26 kg; P<0.001), and were less likely to have received methotrexate for prophylaxis against GVHD (28 percent vs. 65 percent, P<0.001) [31].
  • Letter: Methotrexate in cerebrospinal fluid [32].
  • These variables, as well as the grip strength and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, showed significant (P less than 0.01) improvement at 24 weeks in the population crossed over to methotrexate [33].

Associations of methotrexate with other chemical compounds


Gene context of methotrexate


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of methotrexate


  1. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with methotrexate alone, sulfasalazine and hydroxychloroquine, or a combination of all three medications. O'Dell, J.R., Haire, C.E., Erikson, N., Drymalski, W., Palmer, W., Eckhoff, P.J., Garwood, V., Maloley, P., Klassen, L.W., Wees, S., Klein, H., Moore, G.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
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  4. Brief report: reversible lymphomas associated with Epstein-Barr virus occurring during methotrexate therapy for rheumatoid arthritis and dermatomyositis. Kamel, O.W., van de Rijn, M., Weiss, L.M., Del Zoppo, G.J., Hench, P.K., Robbins, B.A., Montgomery, P.G., Warnke, R.A., Dorfman, R.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. A randomized study of the prevention of acute graft-versus-host disease. Ramsay, N.K., Kersey, J.H., Robison, L.L., McGlave, P.B., Woods, W.G., Krivit, W., Kim, T.H., Goldman, A.I., Nesbit, M.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
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  11. Reversible dementia temporally associated with intraventricular therapy with methotrexate in a child with acute myelogenous leukemia. Pizzo, P.A., Bleyer, W.A., Poplack, D.G., Leventhal, B.G. J. Pediatr. (1976) [Pubmed]
  12. Low-dose methotrexate therapy for ocular inflammatory disease. Shah, S.S., Lowder, C.Y., Schmitt, M.A., Wilke, W.S., Kosmorsky, G.S., Meisler, D.M. Ophthalmology (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Stellate-cell lipidosis in liver biopsy specimens. Recognition and significance. Levine, P.H., Delgado, Y., Theise, N.D., West, A.B. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Highlights from recent National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project studies in the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. Fisher, B. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Bladder cancer: twenty years of progress and the challenges that remain. Lamm, D.L. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Karyotypic abnormalities create discordance of germline genotype and cancer cell phenotypes. Cheng, Q., Yang, W., Raimondi, S.C., Pui, C.H., Relling, M.V., Evans, W.E. Nat. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Treatment-specific changes in gene expression discriminate in vivo drug response in human leukemia cells. Cheok, M.H., Yang, W., Pui, C.H., Downing, J.R., Cheng, C., Naeve, C.W., Relling, M.V., Evans, W.E. Nat. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Infliximab and methotrexate in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Trial in Rheumatoid Arthritis with Concomitant Therapy Study Group. Lipsky, P.E., van der Heijde, D.M., St Clair, E.W., Furst, D.E., Breedveld, F.C., Kalden, J.R., Smolen, J.S., Weisman, M., Emery, P., Feldmann, M., Harriman, G.R., Maini, R.N. N. Engl. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Ondansetron compared with dexamethasone and metoclopramide as antiemetics in the chemotherapy of breast cancer with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil. Levitt, M., Warr, D., Yelle, L., Rayner, H.L., Lofters, W.S., Perrault, D.J., Wilson, K.S., Latreille, J., Potvin, M., Warner, E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. A randomized clinical trial evaluating sequential methotrexate and fluorouracil in the treatment of patients with node-negative breast cancer who have estrogen-receptor-negative tumors. Fisher, B., Redmond, C., Dimitrov, N.V., Bowman, D., Legault-Poisson, S., Wickerham, D.L., Wolmark, N., Fisher, E.R., Margolese, R., Sutherland, C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Methotrexate and cyclosporine compared with cyclosporine alone for prophylaxis of acute graft versus host disease after marrow transplantation for leukemia. Storb, R., Deeg, H.J., Whitehead, J., Appelbaum, F., Beatty, P., Bensinger, W., Buckner, C.D., Clift, R., Doney, K., Farewell, V. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. Use of plasma pharmacokinetics to predict and prevent methotrexate toxicity. Stoller, R.G., Hande, K.R., Jacobs, S.A., Rosenberg, S.A., Chabner, B.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  23. Conventional compared with individualized chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Evans, W.E., Relling, M.V., Rodman, J.H., Crom, W.R., Boyett, J.M., Pui, C.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Memantine protects rats treated with intrathecal methotrexate from developing spatial memory deficits. Cole, P.D., Vijayanathan, V., Ali, N.F., Wagshul, M.E., Tanenbaum, E.J., Price, J., Dalal, V., Gulinello, M.E. Clin. Cancer Res. (2013) [Pubmed]
  25. Methotrexate: distribution in cerebrospinal fluid after intravenous, ventricular and lumbar injections. Shapiro, W.R., Young, D.F., Mehta, B.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  26. Satellite DNA in large marker chromosomes of methotrexate-resistant mouse cells. Bostock, C.J., Clark, E.M. Cell (1980) [Pubmed]
  27. Methotrexate in resistant juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Results of the U.S.A.-U.S.S.R. double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The Pediatric Rheumatology Collaborative Study Group and The Cooperative Children's Study Group. Giannini, E.H., Brewer, E.J., Kuzmina, N., Shaikov, A., Maximov, A., Vorontsov, I., Fink, C.W., Newman, A.J., Cassidy, J.T., Zemel, L.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Elevated levels of the alpha 5 beta 1 fibronectin receptor suppress the transformed phenotype of Chinese hamster ovary cells. Giancotti, F.G., Ruoslahti, E. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  29. Structure and genomic organization of the mouse dihydrofolate reductase gene. Nunberg, J.H., Kaufman, R.J., Chang, A.C., Cohen, S.N., Schimke, R.T. Cell (1980) [Pubmed]
  30. Comparison of intermediate-dose methotrexate with cranial irradiation for the post-induction treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia in children. Freeman, A.I., Weinberg, V., Brecher, M.L., Jones, B., Glicksman, A.S., Sinks, L.F., Weil, M., Pleuss, H., Hananian, J., Burgert, E.O., Gilchrist, G.S., Necheles, T., Harris, M., Kung, F., Patterson, R.B., Maurer, H., Leventhal, B., Chevalier, L., Forman, E., Holland, J.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  31. Graft-versus-host disease in children who have received a cord-blood or bone marrow transplant from an HLA-identical sibling. Eurocord and International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry Working Committee on Alternative Donor and Stem Cell Sources. Rocha, V., Wagner, J.E., Sobocinski, K.A., Klein, J.P., Zhang, M.J., Horowitz, M.M., Gluckman, E. N. Engl. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Letter: Methotrexate in cerebrospinal fluid. Zweig, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  33. Efficacy of low-dose methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis. Weinblatt, M.E., Coblyn, J.S., Fox, D.A., Fraser, P.A., Holdsworth, D.E., Glass, D.N., Trentham, D.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  34. Cyclosporine and methotrexate for severe rheumatoid arthritis. Steinberg, A.D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  35. Replication initiates in a broad zone in the amplified CHO dihydrofolate reductase domain. Vaughn, J.P., Dijkwel, P.A., Hamlin, J.L. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
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  37. Extended follow-up of methotrexate-free immunosuppression using sirolimus and tacrolimus in related and unrelated donor peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Cutler, C., Li, S., Ho, V.T., Koreth, J., Alyea, E., Soiffer, R.J., Antin, J.H. Blood (2007) [Pubmed]
  38. Effect of cyclin D1 overexpression on drug sensitivity in a human fibrosarcoma cell line. Hochhauser, D., Schnieders, B., Ercikan-Abali, E., Gorlick, R., Muise-Helmericks, R., Li, W.W., Fan, J., Banerjee, D., Bertino, J.R. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1996) [Pubmed]
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  40. Isolation and expression of an altered mouse dihydrofolate reductase cDNA. Simonsen, C.C., Levinson, A.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  41. DHFR/MSH3 amplification in methotrexate-resistant cells alters the hMutSalpha/hMutSbeta ratio and reduces the efficiency of base-base mismatch repair. Drummond, J.T., Genschel, J., Wolf, E., Modrich, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  42. A comparison of methotrexate with placebo for the maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease. North American Crohn's Study Group Investigators. Feagan, B.G., Fedorak, R.N., Irvine, E.J., Wild, G., Sutherland, L., Steinhart, A.H., Greenberg, G.R., Koval, J., Wong, C.J., Hopkins, M., Hanauer, S.B., McDonald, J.W. N. Engl. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  43. Treatment of massive intrathecal methotrexate overdose by ventriculolumbar perfusion. Spiegel, R.J., Cooper, P.R., Blum, R.H., Speyer, J.L., McBride, D., Mangiardi, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  44. Elevated dihydrofolate reductase messenger RNA levels in methotrexate-resistant BHK cells. Chang, S.E., Littlefield, J.W. Cell (1976) [Pubmed]
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