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Chemical Compound Review

PGA     2-[[4-[(2-amino-4-oxo-1H- pteridin-6...

Synonyms: UPCMLD-DP091, SureCN3877, SureCN403053, NSC-3073, SureCN3669315, ...
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Disease relevance of folic acid


Psychiatry related information on folic acid


High impact information on folic acid


Chemical compound and disease context of folic acid


Biological context of folic acid


Anatomical context of folic acid

  • Among the fetuses or infants of the women with periconceptional use of folic acid, the rates were 1.0 per 1000 in the northern region and 0.6 per 1000 in the southern region [1].
  • METHODS: To test this hypothesis, we assessed the effects of breakfast cereals fortified with three levels of folic acid, and also containing the recommended dietary allowances of vitamins B6 and B12, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial in 75 men and women with coronary artery disease [3].
  • In severe megaloblastic anemia, secondary either to folic acid or vitamin B12 deficiency, the erythrocyte membrane protein pattern was grossly abnormal, lacking bands 1, 2 (spectrin), and 3 and having several diffuse, faster migrating bands [22].
  • As determined by radioimmunoassay, levels of the folate transport protein and the soluble folate-binding protein were 58 +/- 17 (mean +/- SD) and 5 +/- 2 pmol/mg cell protein, respectively, in KB cells maintained in standard medium (containing 2,300 nM folic acid) [23].
  • The hFR expressed by these cells is sorted to the plasma membrane and is functional as determined by cell surface binding of a radiolabeled folic acid derivative and by internalization of [3H]methotrexate [16].

Associations of folic acid with other chemical compounds


Gene context of folic acid


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of folic acid

  • DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis, with projected change at various levels of folic acid fortification [33].
  • Multivariate adjusted RRs for individual heat sources, after controlling for maternal age, folic acid supplements, family history of NTD, and exposure to other heat sources, were for hot tub use, 2.8 (95% CI, 1.2 to 6.5); sauna, 1.8 (95% CI, 0.4 to 7.9); fever, 1.8 (95% CI, 0.8 to 4.1); and electric blanket, 1.2 (95% CI, 0.5 to 2.6) [34].
  • We examined the relation of multivitamin intake in general, and folic acid in particular, to the risk of neural tube defects in a cohort of 23,491 women undergoing maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening or amniocentesis around 16 weeks of gestation [35].
  • We have developed an experimental animal model using mice to determine the rate of catabolism of [3H]pteroylglutamate (folic acid) by the quantitative estimation of [3H]p-aminobenzoylglutamate and [3H]acetamidobenzoylglutamate in urine [36].
  • The intestinal absorption of [3H]-pteroylmonoglutamate (simple folic acid) and pteroyl-micron[14C]glutamyl-gamma-hexaglutamate ([14C]PG-7, conjugated folic acid) was assessed by the method of jejunal perfusion in five patients with proven celiac sprue who were studied after a gluten-containing or a gluten-free diet, and in nine normal subjects [37].


  1. Prevention of neural-tube defects with folic acid in China. China-U.S. Collaborative Project for Neural Tube Defect Prevention. Berry, R.J., Li, Z., Erickson, J.D., Li, S., Moore, C.A., Wang, H., Mulinare, J., Zhao, P., Wong, L.Y., Gindler, J., Hong, S.X., Correa, A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Folic acid antagonists during pregnancy and risk of birth defects. Newman, R.D., Parise, M., Nahlen, B. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Reduction of plasma homocyst(e)ine levels by breakfast cereal fortified with folic acid in patients with coronary heart disease. Malinow, M.R., Duell, P.B., Hess, D.L., Anderson, P.H., Kruger, W.D., Phillipson, B.E., Gluckman, R.A., Block, P.C., Upson, B.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Folic acid and prevention of spina bifida. Klein, N.W. JAMA (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Folic acid blinded trial in identical twins with fragile X syndrome. Rosenblatt, D.S., Duschenes, E.A., Hellstrom, F.V., Golick, M.S., Vekemans, M.J., Zeesman, S.F., Andermann, E. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1985) [Pubmed]
  6. Methyl groups in carcinogenesis: effects on DNA methylation and gene expression. Wainfan, E., Poirier, L.A. Cancer Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Low folate status is associated with impaired cognitive function and dementia in the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging. Ramos, M.I., Allen, L.H., Mungas, D.M., Jagust, W.J., Haan, M.N., Green, R., Miller, J.W. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Dietary counseling to increase natural folate intake: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in free-living subjects to assess effects on serum folate and plasma total homocysteine. Venn, B.J., Mann, J.I., Williams, S.M., Riddell, L.J., Chisholm, A., Harper, M.J., Aitken, W. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Plasma folate concentrations are associated with depressive symptoms in elderly Latina women despite folic acid fortification. Ramos, M.I., Allen, L.H., Haan, M.N., Green, R., Miller, J.W. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Decreased rate of coronary restenosis after lowering of plasma homocysteine levels. Schnyder, G., Roffi, M., Pin, R., Flammer, Y., Lange, H., Eberli, F.R., Meier, B., Turi, Z.G., Hess, O.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Folic acid antagonists during pregnancy and the risk of birth defects. Hernández-Díaz, S., Werler, M.M., Walker, A.M., Mitchell, A.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Mice lacking the folic acid-binding protein Folbp1 are defective in early embryonic development. Piedrahita, J.A., Oetama, B., Bennett, G.D., van Waes, J., Kamen, B.A., Richardson, J., Lacey, S.W., Anderson, R.G., Finnell, R.H. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. The effect of folic acid fortification on plasma folate and total homocysteine concentrations. Jacques, P.F., Selhub, J., Bostom, A.G., Wilson, P.W., Rosenberg, I.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Inositol prevents folate-resistant neural tube defects in the mouse. Greene, N.D., Copp, A.J. Nat. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Methionine dependence in skin fibroblasts of humans affected with familial colon cancer or Gardner's syndrome. Mikol, Y.B., Lipkin, M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. Stable transfectants of human MCF-7 breast cancer cells with increased levels of the human folate receptor exhibit an increased sensitivity to antifolates. Chung, K.N., Saikawa, Y., Paik, T.H., Dixon, K.H., Mulligan, T., Cowan, K.H., Elwood, P.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Folic acid malabsorption in atrophic gastritis. Possible compensation by bacterial folate synthesis. Russell, R.M., Krasinski, S.D., Samloff, I.M., Jacob, R.A., Hartz, S.C., Brovender, S.R. Gastroenterology (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Supplementation with folic acid during methotrexate therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Morgan, S.L., Baggott, J.E., Vaughn, W.H., Austin, J.S., Veitch, T.A., Lee, J.Y., Koopman, W.J., Krumdieck, C.L., Alarcón, G.S. Ann. Intern. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Prenatal folic acid treatment suppresses acrania and meroanencephaly in mice mutant for the Cart1 homeobox gene. Zhao, Q., Behringer, R.R., de Crombrugghe, B. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. GPI-anchored proteins are organized in submicron domains at the cell surface. Varma, R., Mayor, S. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Folic acid: crystal structure and implications for enzyme binding. Mastropaolo, D., Camerman, A., Camerman, N. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  22. Abnormal erythrocyte membrane protein pattern in severe megaloblastic anemia. Ballas, S.K. J. Clin. Invest. (1978) [Pubmed]
  23. Influence on immunoreactive folate-binding proteins of extracellular folate concentration in cultured human cells. Kane, M.A., Elwood, P.C., Portillo, R.M., Antony, A.C., Najfeld, V., Finley, A., Waxman, S., Kolhouse, J.F. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Effect of homocysteine-lowering therapy with folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 on clinical outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention: the Swiss Heart study: a randomized controlled trial. Schnyder, G., Roffi, M., Flammer, Y., Pin, R., Hess, O.M. JAMA (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Single-nutrient effects on immunologic functions. Report of a workshop sponsored by the Department of Food and Nutrition and its nutrition advisory group of the American Medical Association. Beisel, W.R., Edelman, R., Nauss, K., Suskind, R.M. JAMA (1981) [Pubmed]
  26. Identification of high affinity folate binding proteins in human erythrocyte membranes. Antony, A.C., Kincade, R.S., Verma, R.S., Krishnan, S.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  27. Vegetable consumption and lung cancer risk: a population-based case-control study in Hawaii. Le Marchand, L., Yoshizawa, C.N., Kolonel, L.N., Hankin, J.H., Goodman, M.T. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1989) [Pubmed]
  28. Chronic cobalamin inactivation impairs folate polyglutamate synthesis in the rat. Perry, J., Chanarin, I., Deacon, R., Lumb, M. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  29. The frequent 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism is associated with a common haplotype in whites, Japanese, and Africans. Rosenberg, N., Murata, M., Ikeda, Y., Opare-Sem, O., Zivelin, A., Geffen, E., Seligsohn, U. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Crooked tail (Cd) model of human folate-responsive neural tube defects is mutated in Wnt coreceptor lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6. Carter, M., Chen, X., Slowinska, B., Minnerath, S., Glickstein, S., Shi, L., Campagne, F., Weinstein, H., Ross, M.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Folic acid prevents exencephaly in Cited2 deficient mice. Barbera, J.P., Rodriguez, T.A., Greene, N.D., Weninger, W.J., Simeone, A., Copp, A.J., Beddington, R.S., Dunwoodie, S. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Super in vitro synergy between inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase and inhibitors of other folate-requiring enzymes: the critical role of polyglutamylation. Faessel, H.M., Slocum, H.K., Jackson, R.C., Boritzki, T.J., Rustum, Y.M., Nair, M.G., Greco, W.R. Cancer Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Folic acid fortification of the food supply. Potential benefits and risks for the elderly population. Tucker, K.L., Mahnken, B., Wilson, P.W., Jacques, P., Selhub, J. JAMA (1996) [Pubmed]
  34. Maternal heat exposure and neural tube defects. Milunsky, A., Ulcickas, M., Rothman, K.J., Willett, W., Jick, S.S., Jick, H. JAMA (1992) [Pubmed]
  35. Multivitamin/folic acid supplementation in early pregnancy reduces the prevalence of neural tube defects. Milunsky, A., Jick, H., Jick, S.S., Bruell, C.L., MacLaughlin, D.S., Rothman, K.J., Willett, W. JAMA (1989) [Pubmed]
  36. Effect of anticonvulsant drugs on the rate of folate catabolism in mice. Kelly, D., Weir, D., Reed, B., Scott, J. J. Clin. Invest. (1979) [Pubmed]
  37. Jejunal perfusion of simple and conjugated folates in celiac sprue. Halsted, C.H., Reisenauer, A.M., Romero, J.J., Cantor, D.S., Ruebner, B. J. Clin. Invest. (1977) [Pubmed]
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