The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Insulin-receptor tyrosine kinase and glucose transport.

We identified the earliest events in autophosphorylation of the insulin receptor after insulin addition. Insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation at specific sites in the tyrosine kinase domain of the receptor's beta-subunit is correlated kinetically with activation of kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation of a model substrate (reduced and carboxyamidomethylated lysozyme; RCAM-lysozyme). To identify these sites, the deduced amino acid sequence of the 3T3-L1 adipocyte insulin receptor of the mouse was determined. Insulin-induced activation of substrate phosphorylation was shown to require autophosphorylation of three neighboring tyrosines (Tyr1148, Tyr1152, and Tyr1153) in the mouse receptor. A search for cellular substrates of the receptor kinase revealed that insulin causes accumulation of a 15,000-Mr phosphorylated (on tyrosine) cytosolic protein (pp15) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with oxophenylarsine ( PAO). PAO blocks turnover of the phosphoryl group of pp15, causing its accumulation, and thereby appears to interrupt signal transmission from the receptor to the glucose-transport system. Two membrane-bound protein phosphotyrosine phosphatases that are inhibited by PAO and are apparently responsible for the turnover of the pp15 phosphoryl group have been purified from 3T3-L1 adipocytes and characterized. These and other results support the hypothesis that turnover of the phosphoryl group of pp15, a product of insulin-receptor tyrosine kinase action, couples signal transmission to the glucose-transport system. [32P]pp15 was purified to homogeneity from 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Amino acid and radiochemical sequence analysis of the purified tryptic [32P]phosphopeptide revealed that pp15 is the phosphorylation product of 422(aP2) protein, a 15,000-Mr adipocyte protein whose cDNA we previously cloned and sequenced. 422(aP2) protein was found to bind fatty acids. When exposed to a free fatty acid, notably oleic acid, 422(aP2) protein becomes an excellent substrate of the isolated insulin-receptor tyrosine kinase. Compelling evidence indicates that on binding fatty acid, 422(aP2) protein undergoes a conformational change whereby Tyr19 becomes accessible to the receptor tyrosine kinase and undergoes O-phosphorylation. Adipose tissue and skeletal and heart muscle, which exhibit insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, express a specific insulin-responsive glucose transporter. A cDNA (GT2) that encodes this protein was isolated from a mouse 3T3-L1 adipocyte library and sequenced. We also isolated and characterized the corresponding mouse gene GLUT4. DNase I footprinting with nuclear extracts from 3T3-L1 cells revealed that a differentiation-specific nuclear factor binds to the GLUT4 promoter. The purified transcription factor C/EBP binds at the same position.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)[1]


  1. Insulin-receptor tyrosine kinase and glucose transport. Lane, M.D., Flores-Riveros, J.R., Hresko, R.C., Kaestner, K.H., Liao, K., Janicot, M., Hoffman, R.D., McLenithan, J.C., Kastelic, T., Christy, R.J. Diabetes Care (1990) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities