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Gene Review

Lyz2  -  lysozyme 2

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 1,4-beta-N-acetylmuramidase C, AI326280, Lys, Lysm, Lysozyme C type M, ...
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Disease relevance of Lyzs


Psychiatry related information on Lyzs

  • Comparison of kcat in catalysis by Lys 91 and Tyr 131 and the corresponding double mutant showed a strong antagonistic interaction between these sites, suggesting a cooperative behavior in facilitating the proton-transfer step of catalysis [6].
  • Based on sequence homology to other known antibodies, we further demonstrated that monoclonal antibodies 1A3-2 and 3F7-8 bind lysozyme and the Sm ribonucleoproteins, respectively, in addition to their binding to the 16/6 Id [7].

High impact information on Lyzs

  • Mutant CD4 molecules were introduced into T cells that lacked endogenous CD4 but expressed TCRs specific for lysozyme peptides or the superantigen SEA bound to Ab or Abm12 class II MHC molecules [8].
  • Accordingly, we expressed in L cells mutant uvomorulin with a replacement of Asp to Lys or Ala [9].
  • Cloned pre-B and B cell lines changed into either mature or immature macrophages as assessed by morphology, adherence, phagocytic activity, surface markers, and lysozyme production, but retained clonotypic immunoglobulin gene rearrangements [10].
  • Rearranged beta T cell receptor genes in a helper T cell clone specific for lysozyme: no correlation between V beta and MHC restriction [11].
  • Clones (MGI+D-) that were less inducible by MGI for Fc and C3 rosettes and lysozyme and were not induced to from mature cells were also less inducible higher virus production [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Lyzs


Biological context of Lyzs


Anatomical context of Lyzs


Associations of Lyzs with chemical compounds

  • This was achieved by knocking the enhanced GFP (EGFP) gene into the murine lysozyme M (lys) locus and using a targeting vector, which contains a neomycin resistant (neo) gene flanked by LoxP sites and "splinked" ends, to increase the frequency of homologous recombination [20].
  • Flow cytometric sorting of isolated stromal mononuclear cells (SMNCs), on the basis of M-lysozyme and specific macrophage marker expression, demonstrated that macrophages, neutrophils and non-myelomonocytic cells all contributed to lamina propria prostaglandin (PG) E(2) synthesis [21].
  • RESULTS: Two Lys residues at amino acids 49 and 87 in the STAT3 NH2 terminus are acetylated by p300 [22].
  • Residues with side chains capable of participating in hydrogen bond formation, including Glu, Asp, and to a lesser extent, Gln, His and Lys, were able to substitute for the activating Arg380 mutation [23].
  • Untreated M1Egr-1 cells also exhibited cell adherence, expression of Fc and C3 receptors, and upregulation of the myeloid differentiation primary response genes c-Jun, junD, and junB and the late genetic markers ferritin light-chain and lysozyme [24].

Physical interactions of Lyzs


Regulatory relationships of Lyzs

  • Lysozyme regulates LPS-induced interleukin-6 release in mice [3].
  • We examined, therefore, whether synchronization of M1 cells in the G1 phase could affect G-CSF-induced differentiation as quantitated by expression of Fc fragment receptors (FcR) and lysozyme activity [28].
  • In vitro culture with Cr2+/+ MD4 B cells demonstrated that equimolar amounts of rHEL-C3d3 were more effective than hen egg lysozyme alone in up-regulating c-FLIP levels and for protection against CD95-mediated apoptosis [29].
  • Using LysM-Cre mice we show that lysozyme expressing cells give rise to the IVS and to a part of the left ventricular free wall, demonstrating that these heart regions are developmentally related [30].
  • To explore this issue we generated mice with B cell hyperactivity secondary to deficiency in the src kinase Lyn that also expressed a gene-targeted anti-hen egg lysozyme Ig construct (VDJkappa) capable of class switching to all isotypes [31].

Other interactions of Lyzs

  • However, LIF (or OSM)-induced macrophage differentiation was perturbed; there was failure to undergo morphologic differentiation, disturbed expression of lysozyme and Mac1 alpha, and failure to suppress proliferation [32].
  • Isolated small intestinal crypts from Min mice had markedly increased secretion of both lysozyme and matrilysin compared with wild-type mice [33].
  • Cathepsin D, but not cathepsin B, releases T cell stimulatory fragments from lysozyme that are functional in the context of multiple murine class II MHC molecules [34].
  • CSF-1, when applied alone, induces some M1D+ adherence and the up-regulation of lysozyme M, a macrophage-specific marker [35].
  • Replacing factor-dependency with that for lysozyme: affordable culture of IL-6-dependent hybridoma by transfecting artificial cell surface receptor [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Lyzs


  1. Lysozyme is an inducible marker of macrophage activation in murine tissues as demonstrated by in situ hybridization. Keshav, S., Chung, P., Milon, G., Gordon, S. J. Exp. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Intestinal adenomas of Min-mice lack enterochromaffin cells, and have increased lysozyme production in non-Paneth cells. Husøy, T., Knutsen, H.K., Løberg, E.M., Alexander, J. Anticancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Lysozyme regulates LPS-induced interleukin-6 release in mice. Takada, K., Ohno, N., Yadomae, T. Circ. Shock (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Increased inflammation in lysozyme M-deficient mice in response to Micrococcus luteus and its peptidoglycan. Ganz, T., Gabayan, V., Liao, H.I., Liu, L., Oren, A., Graf, T., Cole, A.M. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Mouse lysozyme M is important in pulmonary host defense against Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. Markart, P., Korfhagen, T.R., Weaver, T.E., Akinbi, H.T. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Intramolecular proton transfer from multiple sites in catalysis by murine carbonic anhydrase V. Earnhardt, J.N., Qian, M., Tu, C., Laipis, P.J., Silverman, D.N. Biochemistry (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Variable regions of two murine antibodies that bind the SLE associated 16/6 idiotype. Waisman, A., Ruiz, P.J., Mozes, E. Lupus (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Requirement for association of p56lck with CD4 in antigen-specific signal transduction in T cells. Glaichenhaus, N., Shastri, N., Littman, D.R., Turner, J.M. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Single amino acid substitutions in one Ca2+ binding site of uvomorulin abolish the adhesive function. Ozawa, M., Engel, J., Kemler, R. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Hemopoietic lineage switch: v-raf oncogene converts Emu-myc transgenic B cells into macrophages. Klinken, S.P., Alexander, W.S., Adams, J.M. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Rearranged beta T cell receptor genes in a helper T cell clone specific for lysozyme: no correlation between V beta and MHC restriction. Goverman, J., Minard, K., Shastri, N., Hunkapiller, T., Hansburg, D., Sercarz, E., Hood, L. Cell (1985) [Pubmed]
  12. Co-regulation of type C RNA virus production and cell differentiation in myeloid leukemic cells. Liebermann, D., Sachs, L. Cell (1978) [Pubmed]
  13. Purification and characterization of IL6-PE4E, a recombinant fusion of interleukin 6 with Pseudomonas exotoxin. Kreitman, R.J., Pastan, I. Bioconjug. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Increased resistance to Staphylococcus aureus infection and enhancement in serum lysozyme activity by glucan. Kokoshis, P.L., Williams, D.L., Cook, J.A., Di Luzio, N.R. Science (1978) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of retinoids on induction of differentiation of cultured mouse myeloid leukemia cells. Takenaga, K., Hozumi, M., Sakagami, Y. Cancer Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
  16. CPG70 is a novel basic metallocarboxypeptidase with C-terminal polycystic kidney disease domains from Porphyromonas gingivalis. Chen, Y.Y., Cross, K.J., Paolini, R.A., Fielding, J.E., Slakeski, N., Reynolds, E.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Repetitive sequence involvement in the duplication and divergence of mouse lysozyme genes. Cross, M., Renkawitz, R. EMBO J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Comparison of the microbicidal and muramidase activities of mouse lysozyme M and P. Markart, P., Faust, N., Graf, T., Na, C.L., Weaver, T.E., Akinbi, H.T. Biochem. J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Regulatory and structural genes for lysozymes of mice. Hammer, M.F., Wilson, A.C. Genetics (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Insertion of enhanced green fluorescent protein into the lysozyme gene creates mice with green fluorescent granulocytes and macrophages. Faust, N., Varas, F., Kelly, L.M., Heck, S., Graf, T. Blood (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Regulation of stromal cell cyclooxygenase-2 in the ApcMin/+ mouse model of intestinal tumorigenesis. Hull, M.A., Faluyi, O.O., Ko, C.W., Holwell, S., Scott, D.J., Cuthbert, R.J., Poulsom, R., Goodlad, R., Bonifer, C., Markham, A.F., Coletta, P.L. Carcinogenesis (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. STAT3 NH2-terminal acetylation is activated by the hepatic acute-phase response and required for IL-6 induction of angiotensinogen. Ray, S., Boldogh, I., Brasier, A.R. Gastroenterology (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Constitutive activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 by the transmembrane domain point mutation found in achondroplasia. Webster, M.K., Donoghue, D.J. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. The zinc finger transcription factor Egr-1 activates macrophage differentiation in M1 myeloblastic leukemia cells. Krishnaraju, K., Hoffman, B., Liebermann, D.A. Blood (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. RGS molecule expression in murine B lymphocytes and ability to down-regulate chemotaxis to lymphoid chemokines. Reif, K., Cyster, J.G. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Positive selection of major histocompatibility complex-restricted suppressor T cells bearing the predominant idiotype in the immune response to lysozyme. Araneo, B.A., Yowell, R.L., Metzger, D.W., Sercarz, E.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  27. Receptor-mediated antigen delivery into macrophages. Complexing antigen to alpha 2-macroglobulin enhances presentation to T cells. Chu, C.T., Pizzo, S.V. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Colony stimulating factor-induced differentiation of murine M1 myeloid leukemia cells is permissive in early G1 phase. Tsuda, H., Neckers, L.M., Pluznik, D.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  29. CD21/CD19 coreceptor signaling promotes B cell survival during primary immune responses. Barrington, R.A., Zhang, M., Zhong, X., Jonsson, H., Holodick, N., Cherukuri, A., Pierce, S.K., Rothstein, T.L., Carroll, M.C. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Identification of interventricular septum precursor cells in the mouse embryo. Stadtfeld, M., Ye, M., Graf, T. Dev. Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  31. Spontaneous class switching and B cell hyperactivity increase autoimmunity against intracellular self antigen in Lyn-deficient mice. Silver, K., Bouriez-Jones, T., Crockford, T., Ferry, H., Tang, H.L., Cyster, J.G., Cornall, R.J. Eur. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  32. Differential regulation of macrophage differentiation in response to leukemia inhibitory factor/oncostatin-M/interleukin-6: the effect of enforced expression of the SCL transcription factor. Tanigawa, T., Nicola, N., McArthur, G.A., Strasser, A., Begley, C.G. Blood (1995) [Pubmed]
  33. Truncated mouse adenomatous polyposis coli reduces connexin32 content and increases matrilysin secretion from Paneth cells. Husøy, T., Ølstørn, H.B., Knutsen, H.K., Løberg, E.M., Cruciani, V., Mikalsen, S.O., Goverud, I.L., Alexander, J. Eur. J. Cancer (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Cathepsin D, but not cathepsin B, releases T cell stimulatory fragments from lysozyme that are functional in the context of multiple murine class II MHC molecules. van Noort, J.M., Jacobs, M.J. Eur. J. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  35. Synergistic effects of colony-stimulating factor 1 and leukemia inhibitory factor in inducing early myeloid cell differentiation. Aperlo, C., Sevilla, L., Guerin, S., Pognonec, P., Boulukos, K.E. Cell Growth Differ. (1998) [Pubmed]
  36. Replacing factor-dependency with that for lysozyme: affordable culture of IL-6-dependent hybridoma by transfecting artificial cell surface receptor. Kawahara, M., Natsume, A., Terada, S., Kato, K., Tsumoto, K., Kumagai, I., Miki, M., Mahoney, W., Ueda, H., Nagamune, T. Biotechnol. Bioeng. (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. Deficiency of NADPH oxidase components p47phox and gp91phox caused granulomatous synovitis and increased connective tissue destruction in experimental arthritis models. van de Loo, F.A., Bennink, M.B., Arntz, O.J., Smeets, R.L., Lubberts, E., Joosten, L.A., van Lent, P.L., Coenen-de Roo, C.J., Cuzzocrea, S., Segal, B.H., Holland, S.M., van den Berg, W.B. Am. J. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  38. Stimulating effect of DEODAN (an oral preparation from Lactobacillus bulgaricus "LB51") on monocytes/macrophages and host resistance to experimental infections. Popova, P., Guencheva, G., Davidkova, G., Bogdanov, A., Pacelli, E., Opalchenova, G., Kutzarova, T., Koychev, C. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  39. Amputation of a suppressor determinant on lysozyme reveals underlying T-cell reactivity to other determinants. Yowell, R.L., Araneo, B.A., Miller, A., Sercarz, E.E. Nature (1979) [Pubmed]
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