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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Influence of metabolic factors on the mutagenic effectiveness of cyclophosphamide in Drosophila melanogaster.

This paper describes the influence of changes in metabolic activity on the in-vivo mutagenic effectiveness of cyclophosphamide in Drosophila melanogaster. A dose-dependent increase in mutagenicity was observed until a plateau value is reached which was increased only slightly after enzyme induction with Aroclor 1254, whereas induction with phenobarbital resulted in a decrease, especially when cyclophosphamide was applied by injection. Treatment of the adult males with inhibitors of the monoamine oxidase (MAO, EC, such as iproniazid (Ipr), benzimidazole or tryptamine, led to a marked increase of the mutagenic effectiveness of cyclophosphamide especially in spermatocytes. This indicates the importance of metabolic de-activation processes for the limited mutagenicity of cyclophosphamide in Drosophila. The principal active metabolite of cyclophosphamide, phosphoramide mustard, is extensively de-activated by enzymes that can be inhibited by 1-phenylimidazole (PhI), presumably cytochrome P-450 (EC, but not by those blocked by MAO inhibitors. Inhibition of the FAD-containing dimethylaniline monooxygenase (FDMAM, EC by N,N-dimethylbenzylamine (N,N-DMB) resulted in some increase in cyclophosphamide mutagenicity only in spermatids. The marginal mutagenicity of cyclophosphamide in Drosophila larvae could not be increased either by cytochrome P-450 induction with phenobarbital or by MAO inhibition with Ipr. In contrast to the failure of cyclophosphamide to induce rod-chromosome loss, a considerable activity was found when a ring-shaped chromosome was used. Similar to the sex-linked recessive lethal (SLRL) test, ring-X loss frequency could be enhanced by simultaneous treatment with MAO inhibitors. The observed ring-X loss frequency declined when males treated with cyclophosphamide were mated to DNA-repair deficient mei-9L1 females. Cyclophosphamide produces chromosome breaks, detected as 2-3 translocations, in Drosophila spermatocytes, the stage in spermatogenesis that is also the most sensitive to the induction of SLRL mutations.[1]


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