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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Cysteamine-induced decrease of somatostatin in rat brain synaptosomes in vitro.

The mechanism of somatostatin depletion induced by cysteamine [2-mercaptoethylamine (CySH)] was studied in isolated nerve endings (synaptosomes) from rat brain in vitro. A dose-dependent reduction of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SLI) was observed which reached its maximal extent (41%) at a concentration of 300 microM CySH after 1-5 min. There was no release of somatostatin into the incubation medium. CySH at concentrations of up to 10 mM did not interfere in the RIA. Among a variety of compounds, structurally related to CySH 4-aminothiophenol, 2-aminothiophenol and N,N-dimethylaminothiol exhibited the highest efficacy in decreasing somatostatin (60%, 50%, 30%, respectively, at 10 mM and 10 min). The disulfide form of CySH cystamine and dimercaprol resulted in about 15% reduction after 10-min incubation, whereas taurine, alanine, cysteine, and mercaptoethanol were inactive. A saturable, sodium-dependent uptake process was found for the disulfide form of [35S]CySH cystamine [Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) = 18.6 microM, maximum velocity (Vmax) = 2.3 nmol/mg protein X 3 min) which was inhibited by cysteine (87% at 1 mM). [35S]CySH, at concentrations of 20 microM or less, was not stable in buffer solution. It underwent considerable nonenzymatic conversion into its dimeric form (60% at 37 C and 3 min), however it exhibited the same kinetic data for its uptake. Size exclusion HPLC of purified hypothalamic synaptosomes revealed a major SLI peak coeluting with synthetic somatostatin-14 and two minor peaks representing somatostatin-28 and a 13,000 mol wt protein. The three molecular forms of somatostatin were reduced to varied extent by CySH (somatostatin-14 by about 70%, somatostatin-28 by 15%, and the high mol wt form by 30%). Our experiments suggest that high affinity uptake of CySH may precede its action in decreasing somatostatin levels. Increased release or inhibition of synthesis of somatostatin have been excluded as possible mechanisms. It is suggested that SLI is equally affected in nerve endings and in perikarya.[1]


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