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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Pharmacologic modulation of erythropoietin production.

A model for the regulation of erythropoietin production has been presented. This model proposes that a primary O2-sensing reaction in the kidney is initiated by a decrease in ambient PO2, a rapid decrease in gas exchange in the lung, a diminished oxygen-carrying capacity of hemoglobin, a molecular deprivation of oxygen, or a decrease in renal blood flow. It is proposed that the primary oxygen-sensing reaction may trigger the release of several mediators that stimulate adenylate cyclase through a receptor-activated stimulation of a G protein in the renal cell membrane. Some of the agents that are thought to be released during hypoxia, which may trigger this cascade, are adenosine (A2 activation), eicosanoids (PGE2, PGI2, and 6-keto PGE1), oxygen-free radicals (superoxide and H2O2), and catecholamines with beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist properties. The activation of adenylate cyclase generates cyclic AMP, which activates protein kinase A, leading to the production of a phosphoprotein that, in turn, activates a nuclear protein involved in transcription and/or translation for erythropoietin biosynthesis and/or secretion. A second part of this model concerns the effect of hypoxia on a renal cell membrane phosphodiesterase and the generation of inositol triphosphate and diacylglycerol. Diacylglycerol may interact with diacylglycerol lipase to generate arachidonic acid, which, together with arachidonic acid generated by the interaction of phospholipase A2 on membrane phospholipids, produces eicosanoids. Eicosanoids may play a secondary role in Ep production/secretion. The model further proposes that calcium levels in both renal and liver cells may be important in regulating erythropoietin biosynthesis and/or secretion. It is proposed that an increase in intracellular calcium leads to the inhibition of erythropoietin biosynthesis and/or secretion and a decrease in intracellular calcium increases erythropoietin production. The specific mechanism by which calcium regulates erythropoietin biosynthesis and secretion is not well understood. However, a good correlation is seen with several agents that decrease intracellular calcium and increase erythropoietin production as well as with other agents that increase intracellular calcium and decrease erythropoietin production. When inositol triphosphate levels are increased, an increase in the mobilization of intracellular calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum or another intracellular pool occurs. This increased intracellular calcium probably activates a calcium calmodulin kinase and produces a phosphoprotein that inhibits erythropoietin production/secretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)[1]


  1. Pharmacologic modulation of erythropoietin production. Fisher, J.W. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. (1988) [Pubmed]
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