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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Type I diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance not only with regard to glucose, but also to lipid and amino acid metabolism.

Resistance to the metabolic effects of insulin has been reported with regard to glucose disposal in type I diabetic patients ( IDDM) even when they were euglycemic. Our aim was to study glucose, lipid, and amino acid metabolism during glucose clamping at multiple levels of insulin in 10 normal (N) and 6 IDDM patients. Blood glucose was maintained constant (4.7 mmol/liter) at three insulin plateaus (160 min each) [42 +/- 6 (SD) 89 +/- 11, and 1255 +/- 185 microU/ml in N and 36 +/- 4, 80 +/- 13, and 1249 +/- 107 microU/liter in IDDM]. Mean glucose disposal was 34 +/- 11, 69 +/- 10, and 84 +/- 22 mumol kg-1 min-1 in N and 16 +/- 5, 40 +/- 18, and 65 +/- 27 in IDDM, respectively. Baseline concentrations of blood lactate, pyruvate, alanine, and branched chain amino acids were 560 +/- 130, 36 +/- 9, 212 +/- 44, and 451 +/- 19 mumol/liter, in N and 793 +/- 179 (P less than 0.05), 45 +/- 14, 195 +/- 50, and 439 +/- 33 in IDDM, respectively. The maximum percent change of lactate during the euglycemic clamp was +147 +/- 23% in N and +75 +/- 15% (P less than 0.05) in IDDM; that of branched chain amino acids was -61 +/- 5% in N and -48 +/- 7% (P less than 0.01) in IDDM. Baseline concentrations of glycerol, FFA, and adipate were 44 +/- 15, 449 +/- 152, and 8 - 8 mumol/liter in N and 39 +/- 14, 473 +/- 44, and 41 +/- 14 (P less than 0.01) in IDDM. The maximum percent change of glycerol during the euglycemic clamp was -50 +/- 8% in N and -16 +/- 8% (P less than 0.01) in IDDM, that of FFA -98 +/- 3% in N and -70 +/- 4% in IDDM (P less than 0.05). No significant differences were found between N and IDDM with regard to blood concentrations of ketone bodies, citrate, ketoglutarate, and hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A both before and during the euglycemic clamp. The lactate percent increase was significantly correlated to glucose disposal rate (P less than 0.001). The lactate turnover rate increased during the euglycemic clamp and was lower in IDDM than in N. We conclude that during euglycemic-multiple insulin clamp studies the greater lactate increase suggests that the flux of glycolysis is higher in N than in IDDM, tricarboxylic acid concentrations are comparable in N and IDDM, and FFA, glycerol, and branched chain amino acid decreases were less in IDDM than in N, suggesting that IDDM patients are resistant to insulin with regard to lipid and protein metabolism. The higher adipate basal values demonstrate enhanced omega-oxidation in IDDM.[1]


  1. Type I diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance not only with regard to glucose, but also to lipid and amino acid metabolism. Trevisan, R., Nosadini, R., Avogaro, A., Lippe, G., Duner, E., Fioretto, P., Deana, R., Tessari, P., Tiengo, A., Velussi, M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1986) [Pubmed]
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