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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

A decade of developments in diuretic drug therapy.

New diuretics introduced into clinical medicine during the past decade include potent new loop diuretics such as bumetanide and piretanide, the uricosuric indanyloxyacetic acid derivative indacrinone, and a new generation of sulfamoyl diuretics such as indapamide and xipamide, which are recommended primarily for the treatment of hypertension. Pharmacokinetic studies of individual diuretics have demonstrated that the diuretic and natriuretic responses to the newer agents generally follow the plasma drug concentration-time curves and urinary drug excretion rates. Therapeutic monitoring can therefore be achieved in most patients with edema or hypertension by close clinical observation and laboratory analysis of plasma electrolyte and creatinine concentrations and urinary electrolyte excretion rates. Interest in the mechanisms involved in the renal and extrarenal vascular actions of the newer diuretics has led to a better understanding of how changes in venous compliance, peripheral vascular resistance, and renal blood flow distribution may contribute to the overall therapeutic response to these agents, especially in patients with severe congestive heart failure, renal insufficiency with low glomerular filtration rates, and hypertension with cardiorenal complications. Adverse reactions to modern diuretics, which are mainly an extension of their renal pharmacodynamic effects, have proved to be minimal, provided that the dosage is adjusted to meet but not exceed individual patient requirements. However, the long-term consequences of prolonged periods of diuretic-induced alterations in plasma potassium levels, and metabolic effects that include elevated blood lipids, are still under investigation.[1]


  1. A decade of developments in diuretic drug therapy. Hutcheon, D.E., Martinez, J.C. Journal of clinical pharmacology. (1986) [Pubmed]
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