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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 
 
 
 
 

Proton magnetic resonance studies on Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase. Assignment of histidine C-2 protons in binary complexes with folates on the basis of the crystal structure with methotrexate and on chemical modifications.

The effects of pH upon the C-2 resonances of the 5 histidine residues of Escherichia coli MB 1428 dihydrofolate reductase in binary complexes with methotrexate, aminopterin, folate, methopterin, and trimethoprim were studied by 300-MHz 1H nmr spectroscopy. Three of the five histidine residues, labeled 1, 2, and 3, exhibited similar pK' values and chemical shifts for their C-2 protons in the five binary complexes. One histidine, 4, was quite different in the folate complex and the last histidine, 5 was quite different in the trimethoprim complex. For all five binary complexes, each histidine had a pK' which was significantly different from the other 4 histidines of that complex. Titration of the binary methotrexate complex of a 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate)-modified enzyme showed that 2 histidines were not perturbed by this modification of Cys 152, and that the alkaline form of histidine 2, the acid form of histidine 4, and, to a lesser extent, the acid form of histidine 3 were slightly perturbed. Titration of the binary methotrexate complex of a N-bromosuccinimide-modified enzyme demonstrated that this modification slightly affected all of the histidines and drastically affected histidine 5. Histidines 3 and 5 of the binary methotrexate complex reacted rapidly with the histidine-specific reagent, ethoxyformic anhydride, while histidines 2 and 4 reacted at a moderate rate and histidine 1 reacted slowly if at all. The local electrostatic environments of the 5 histidine residues as deduced from the crystal structure of the binary complex of the enzyme with methotrexate (Matthews, D.A., Alden, R.A., Bolin, J.T., Freer, S.T., Hamlin, R., Xuong, N., Kraut, J., Poe, M., Williams, M.N., and Hoogsteen, K. (1977) Science 197, 594-597) were used as the basis for proposed assignments of the five histidine C-2 nmr resonances. The assignments were: 1, pK' 7.9 to 8.2, His 124; 2, pK' 7.2 to 7.4, His 141; 3, pK' 6.5 to 6.7, His 149; 4, pK' 5.7 to 6.3, His 114; and 5, pK' 5.2 to 5.9, His 45. The effect of the chemical modifications upon the enzyme's histidine residues were consistent with the assignments, but no direct chemical evidence in support of the assignments was obtained. It was proposed that, since the crystallographic data provided consistent assignments of the histidine nmr data for both native and chemically modified enzyme, the local environment of each of the 5 histidine residues was similar in the crystal and in solution.[1]

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