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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Split-dose exposure to N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in BALB/3T3 C1 a31-1-1 cells: evidence of DNA repair by alkaline elution without changes in cell survival, mutation and transformation rates.

Dose fractionation of a direct-acting chemical carcinogen, the alkylating agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), was studied for its concurrent effects on survival, DNA damage and repair, ouabain resistance (Ouar) mutations and neoplastic transformation, in the mouse embryo cell line BALB/3T3 C1A31-1-1. MNNG doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 micrograms/ml were added to the cells either as a single exposure or in two equal fractions separated by 1, 3 or 5 h intervals. No significant difference in cytotoxicity was found when single and split-dose treatments were compared. No recovery from sublethal damage was therefore found in this cell line by split-dose administration of MNNG, although such an effect was found when the same cell line was treated with single and split doses of X-rays. Repair of DNA damage as measured by alkaline elution was studied up to 24 h after a single MNNG exposure (0.5 micrograms/ml). DNA repair was rapid during the first 5 h after treatment and slow thereafter. DNA damage detected after split doses of MNNG at 1 and 5 h intervals was significantly lower than after a corresponding single dose. With both single and split doses, rejoining of single-strand breaks (ssb) was nearly complete after 24 h of repair time. Ouar mutation and neoplastic transformation frequencies were determined for single and split doses of MNNG with the second treatment being given during (1 h) or after (5 h) the period of rapid DNA repair. No significant differences in either effect were detected for dose splitting at any tested dose.[1]


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