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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Regulation of cephamycin C synthesis, aspartokinase, dihydrodipicolinic acid synthetase, and homoserine dehydrogenase by aspartic acid family amino acids in Streptomyces clavuligerus.

The effect of the cephalosporin precursors and amino acids of the aspartic acid family on antibiotic production by Streptomyces clavuligerus was investigated DL-meso-Diaminopimelate and L-lysine each stimulated specific antibiotic production by 75%. A fourfold increase in specific production was obtained by simultaneous addition of the two compounds. The stimulation could be further increased by adding valine to the two effectors. In the streptomycetes the alpha-aminoadipyl side chain of the cephalosporin antibiotics is derived from lysine. Streptomycetes, like other bacteria, are expected to produce lysine from aspartic acid; therefore, the feedback control mechanisms operating in the aspartic acid family pathway of S. clavuligerus, which may affect the flow of carbon to alpha-aminoadipic acid, were investigated. Threonine inhibited antibiotic production by 41% when added to minimal medium at a concentration of 10 mM. Simultaneous addition of 10 mM lysine completely reversed this inhibition. The aspartokinase of S. clavuligerus was found to be subject to concerted feedback inhibition by threonine and lysine. Threonine may act to limit the supply of lysine available for cephamycin C biosynthesis via this concerted mechanism. Single or simultaneous addition of any other amino acid of the aspartate family in the in vitro assay did not inhibit aspartokinase activity. Activity was stimulated by lysine. Aspartokinase biosynthesis was partially repressed by methionine or isoleucine at concentrations higher than 10 mM. Methionine, but not isoleucine, inhibited cephamycin C synthesis by 27% when added to minimal medium at a concentration of 10 mM. Dihydrodipicolinate synthetase, the first specific enzyme of the lysine branch, was not inhibited by lysine but was partially inhibited by high concentrations of 2,6-diaminopimelate and alpha-aminoadipate; it was slightly repressed by diaminopimelic acid. Homoserine dehydrogenase activity was inhibited by threonine and partially repressed by isoleucine. It appears that S. clavuligerus aspartokinase is a key step in the control of carbon flow toward alpha-aminoadipic acid.[1]


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