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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Impaired macrophage functions as a possible basis of immunomodification by microbial agents, tilorone and dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide.

Four microbial and two chemically defined immunomodulating agents namely viable BCG, killed Mycobacterium butyricum, killed Lactobacillus plantarum, zymosan, tilorone, and dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DDA) were studied for their effects on macrophage functions in vitro and in vivo. All agents induced a dose-dependent mortality of macrophages as determined by trypan blue exclusion. DDA and especially tilorone were rather toxic for macrophages in vitro. All agents except tilorone and DDA inhibited phagocytosis of yeast cells and uptake of acridine orange in vitro at doses which killed up to about 30% of the macrophages. DDA and tilorone had no effect at similar doses. All agents but zymosan inhibited the spreading of macrophages. No interference with the fusion of lysosomes and yeast cell-containing phagosomes could be observed. The activity of the mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS) in vivo as measured by carbon clearance was stimulated by all substances within twenty-four hours. All agents but DDA and tilorone enhanced non-specific bacterial resistance. As demonstrated previously for DDA, tilorone could serve as adjuvant for induction of specific resistance to Listeria monocytogenes. The results are discussed in relation to other data on influencing of macrophage functions and on immunomodification. It is concluded that hampered antigen destruction by local macrophage suppression attended with MPS stimulation might be a basic mechanism for adjuvanticity exerted by these agents.[1]


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