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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Phagosomes


High impact information on Phagosomes

  • Autophagy stimulation increased phagosomal colocalization with Beclin-1, a subunit of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase hVPS34, necessary for autophagy and a target for mycobacterial phagosome maturation arrest [6].
  • We have identified a WD repeat host protein that was recruited to and actively retained on phagosomes by living, but not dead, mycobacteria [7].
  • A fusion of coronin with green fluorescent protein (GFP) accumulates in the cups within less than 1 min upon attachment of a particle and is gradually released from the phagosome within 1 min after engulfment is completed [8].
  • Immunocytochemical studies using antibodies against purified TC-TOX showed that the protein was localized to the luminal space of parasite-containing phagosomes [9].
  • Here we show that M. tuberculosis phagosomes are secluded from the cytosolic MHC-I processing pathway and that mycobacteria-infected cells lose their antigen-presenting capacity [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Phagosomes


Biological context of Phagosomes


Anatomical context of Phagosomes


Associations of Phagosomes with chemical compounds


Gene context of Phagosomes

  • The Toll-like receptor 2 is recruited to macrophage phagosomes and discriminates between pathogens [1].
  • Dynamin 2 is enriched on early phagosomes, and expression of a dominant-negative mutant of dynamin 2 significantly inhibits particle internalization at the stage of membrane extension around the particle [29].
  • We used fluorescent chimeric proteins to monitor the dynamics of association of actin and active Cdc42 and Rac1 with the forming phagosome [30].
  • Although actin was found to disappear from the base of the forming phagosome before sealing was complete, Rac1/Cdc42 activity persisted, suggesting that termination of GTPase activity is not the main determinant of actin disassembly [30].
  • The smaller subpopulation of afipiae whose phagosomes will be part of the endocytic system enters into an EEA1-positive compartment, which also subsequently acquires LAMP-1 [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Phagosomes


  1. The Toll-like receptor 2 is recruited to macrophage phagosomes and discriminates between pathogens. Underhill, D.M., Ozinsky, A., Hajjar, A.M., Stevens, A., Wilson, C.B., Bassetti, M., Aderem, A. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. The human macrophage mannose receptor directs Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipoarabinomannan-mediated phagosome biogenesis. Kang, P.B., Azad, A.K., Torrelles, J.B., Kaufman, T.M., Beharka, A., Tibesar, E., DesJardin, L.E., Schlesinger, L.S. J. Exp. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Class II MHC molecules are present in macrophage lysosomes and phagolysosomes that function in the phagocytic processing of Listeria monocytogenes for presentation to T cells. Harding, C.V., Geuze, H.J. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. TI-VAMP/VAMP7 is required for optimal phagocytosis of opsonised particles in macrophages. Braun, V., Fraisier, V., Raposo, G., Hurbain, I., Sibarita, J.B., Chavrier, P., Galli, T., Niedergang, F. EMBO J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Salmonella typhimurium activates virulence gene transcription within acidified macrophage phagosomes. Alpuche Aranda, C.M., Swanson, J.A., Loomis, W.P., Miller, S.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Autophagy is a defense mechanism inhibiting BCG and Mycobacterium tuberculosis survival in infected macrophages. Gutierrez, M.G., Master, S.S., Singh, S.B., Taylor, G.A., Colombo, M.I., Deretic, V. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. A coat protein on phagosomes involved in the intracellular survival of mycobacteria. Ferrari, G., Langen, H., Naito, M., Pieters, J. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Coronin involved in phagocytosis: dynamics of particle-induced relocalization visualized by a green fluorescent protein Tag. Maniak, M., Rauchenberger, R., Albrecht, R., Murphy, J., Gerisch, G. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. A T. cruzi-secreted protein immunologically related to the complement component C9: evidence for membrane pore-forming activity at low pH. Andrews, N.W., Abrams, C.K., Slatin, S.L., Griffiths, G. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Apoptosis facilitates antigen presentation to T lymphocytes through MHC-I and CD1 in tuberculosis. Schaible, U.E., Winau, F., Sieling, P.A., Fischer, K., Collins, H.L., Hagens, K., Modlin, R.L., Brinkmann, V., Kaufmann, S.H. Nat. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Macrophage's Proinflammatory Response to a Mycobacterial Infection Is Dependent on Sphingosine Kinase-Mediated Activation of Phosphatidylinositol Phospholipase C, Protein Kinase C, ERK1/2, and Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase. Yadav, M., Clark, L., Schorey, J.S. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Emerging views on integrin signaling via Rac1 during invasin-promoted bacterial uptake. Wong, K.W., Isberg, R.R. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Evidence that Dot-dependent and -independent factors isolate the Legionella pneumophila phagosome from the endocytic network in mouse macrophages. Joshi, A.D., Sturgill-Koszycki, S., Swanson, M.S. Cell. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Cholesterol depletion in Mycobacterium avium-infected macrophages overcomes the block in phagosome maturation and leads to the reversible sequestration of viable mycobacteria in phagolysosome-derived autophagic vacuoles. de Chastellier, C., Thilo, L. Cell. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Modulation of cellular phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate levels in primary macrophages affects heat-killed but not viable Mycobacterium avium's transport through the phagosome maturation process. Kelley, V.A., Schorey, J.S. Cell. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Probing the phagolysosomal environment of human macrophages with a Ca2+-responsive operon fusion in Yersinia pestis. Pollack, C., Straley, S.C., Klempner, M.S. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Compartmentalization of cyclic AMP during phagocytosis by human neutrophilic granulocytes. Pryzwansky, K.B., Steiner, A.L., Spitznagel, J.K., Kapoor, C.L. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  18. The Legionnaires' disease bacterium (Legionella pneumophila) inhibits phagosome-lysosome fusion in human monocytes. Horwitz, M.A. J. Exp. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. Natural resistance to infection with intracellular pathogens: the Nramp1 protein is recruited to the membrane of the phagosome. Gruenheid, S., Pinner, E., Desjardins, M., Gros, P. J. Exp. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Focal exocytosis of VAMP3-containing vesicles at sites of phagosome formation. Bajno, L., Peng, X.R., Schreiber, A.D., Moore, H.P., Trimble, W.S., Grinstein, S. J. Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Regulation of the phagocyte respiratory burst by small GTP-binding proteins. Bokoch, G.M. Trends Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Natural resistance to intracellular infections: natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (Nramp1) functions as a pH-dependent manganese transporter at the phagosomal membrane. Jabado, N., Jankowski, A., Dougaparsad, S., Picard, V., Grinstein, S., Gros, P. J. Exp. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. The many roads to cross-presentation. Groothuis, T.A., Neefjes, J. J. Exp. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Human neutrophils employ chlorine gas as an oxidant during phagocytosis. Hazen, S.L., Hsu, F.F., Mueller, D.M., Crowley, J.R., Heinecke, J.W. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. The glyoxylate cycle is required for fungal virulence. Lorenz, M.C., Fink, G.R. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Phagocytosis: latex leads the way. Desjardins, M., Griffiths, G. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Molecular definition of distinct cytoskeletal structures involved in complement- and Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis in macrophages. Allen, L.A., Aderem, A. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. Analysis of protease activity in live antigen-presenting cells shows regulation of the phagosomal proteolytic contents during dendritic cell activation. Lennon-Duménil, A.M., Bakker, A.H., Maehr, R., Fiebiger, E., Overkleeft, H.S., Rosemblatt, M., Ploegh, H.L., Lagaudrière-Gesbert, C. J. Exp. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Dynamin 2 is required for phagocytosis in macrophages. Gold, E.S., Underhill, D.M., Morrissette, N.S., Guo, J., McNiven, M.A., Aderem, A. J. Exp. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis directs actin remodeling during phagocytosis. Scott, C.C., Dobson, W., Botelho, R.J., Coady-Osberg, N., Chavrier, P., Knecht, D.A., Heath, C., Stahl, P., Grinstein, S. J. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Afipia felis induces uptake by macrophages directly into a nonendocytic compartment. Luhrmann, A., Streker, K., Schüttfort, A., Daniels, J.J., Haas, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Processing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen 85B involves intraphagosomal formation of peptide-major histocompatibility complex II complexes and is inhibited by live bacilli that decrease phagosome maturation. Ramachandra, L., Noss, E., Boom, W.H., Harding, C.V. J. Exp. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Cytosolic free calcium elevation mediates the phagosome-lysosome fusion during phagocytosis in human neutrophils. Jaconi, M.E., Lew, D.P., Carpentier, J.L., Magnusson, K.E., Sjögren, M., Stendahl, O. J. Cell Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  34. Asymmetric distribution of plasma membrane proteins in mouse L-929 cells. Evans, R.M., Ward, D.C., Fink, L.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1979) [Pubmed]
  35. Transient association of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunits p47phox and p67phox with phagosomes in neutrophils from patients with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease. Allen, L.A., DeLeo, F.R., Gallois, A., Toyoshima, S., Suzuki, K., Nauseef, W.M. Blood (1999) [Pubmed]
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