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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 
 
 
 
 

Concentrations of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase and prostaglandin I2 synthase in the endothelium and smooth muscle of bovine aorta.

Platelets adhere to the subendothelial layer of newly deendothelialized arteries. Attachment can be reduced with exogenous prostacyclin (PGI2). Thus, the subendothelium may be unable to produce sufficient PGI2 to prevent platelet adherence and subsequent platelet-platelet interaction. Consistent with this explanation are data from an earlier report (1977. Moncada S., A. G. Herman, E. A. Higgs, and J. R. Vane. Thromb. Res. 11:323-344) indicating that the smooth muscle layer of aorta has only 10-15% of the capacity of endothelial cells to synthesize PGI2. We have measured the concentrations of PGI2 synthase and prostaglandin endoperoxide (PGH) synthase in bovine aorta and obtained results quite different from those described in this earlier report. Tandem immunoradiometric assays for PGI2 synthase and PGH synthase antigens were used to quantitate these proteins in detergent-solubilized homogenates of endothelial cells and smooth muscle tissue prepared from 10 different bovine aorta. The concentrations of PGI2 synthase in endothelial cells and smooth muscle were found to be the same. However, the concentration of PGH synthase in endothelial cells averaged greater than 20 times that of smooth muscle. Results similar to those determined by immunoradiometric assay were also obtained when PGH synthase and PGI2 synthase catalytic activities were measured in preparations of endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, when bovine aorta and renal arteries were subjected to immunocytofluorescence staining using monoclonal antibodies to PGI2 synthase, fluorescence staining of equivalent intensity was detected in both the endothelial cells and the smooth muscle. Moreover, the intensity of fluorescence was similar throughout cross-sections of vascular smooth muscle, indicating that there is no gradient in PGI2 synthase concentrations between the endothelium and adventitia. Our results indicate that the propensity of platelets to adhere to the subendothelium of deendothelialized arteries and form aggregates cannot be attributed simply to an inability of the denuded vasculature to produce PGI2 from PGH2, but may be a consequence of the low PGH synthase activity of smooth muscle. Consistent with this concept are the results of Eldor et al. (1981. J. Clin. Invest. 67:735-741) who reported that increases in PGH synthase activity are associated with formation of a nonthrombogenic neointima.[1]

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