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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Iosulamide: a new intravenous cholangiocholecystographic medium.

Iosulamide is a bis-benzoic analogue of metrizoate that shows clear advantages in animal tests over meglumine iodipamide. The intravenous toxicity of iosulamide meglumine is considerably lower than that of iodipamide (Cholografin) in the mouse and rat. The LD50 in mice for iosulamide meglumine is 11,500 +/- 844 mg free acid/kg and for iodipamide is 2380 +/- 290 mg free acid/kg. A threefold difference in toxicity was seen in rats; the LD50 for iosulamide meglumine is 13,600 +/- 1710 mg free acid kg and for iodipamide is 4430 +/- 310 mg free acid/kg. Iosulamide is a highly effective contrast agent for cholangiocholecystographic visualization in cats and monkeys. speed and degree of opacification are equivalent to that of iodipamide at equimolar doses. Studies of biliary and urinary excretion patterns indicate iosulamide is rapidly excreted compared to iodipamide, while at the same time providing equal concentrations in bile on an mg/ml bile basis. A more efficient blood to bile clearance rate and a shorter blood half-life for iosulamide may account for the lower circulating blood levels and rapid total excretion compared to iodipamide. Iosulamide's rapid blood-bile clearance coupled with its extremely low toxicity may allow rapid administration of high doses, affording superior visualization and safety compared to iodipamide. It may also provide visualization of the liver parenchyma with computerized axial tomography, due to the pharmacokinetic profile that provides for high liver clearance but low blood levels. The emetic potential of iosulamide meglumine is quite low compared to iodipamide. Iosulamide meglumine also lacks hypotensive activity. Little or no effect on blood pressure was seen with iosulamide meglumine in cats or monkeys, whereas iodipamide caused marked transient, or sustained, reductions. Iosulamide meglumine did not produce significant toxic effects when administered as single daily intravenous injections to albino rats for three weeks, or in 10-minute intravenous infusions to rhesus monkeys 10 times in 14 days. Clinical trials with iosulamide are under way.[1]


  1. Iosulamide: a new intravenous cholangiocholecystographic medium. Rosenberg, F.J., Ackerman, J.H., Nickel, A.R. Investigative radiology. (1980) [Pubmed]
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