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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Examination of fibronectin distribution and its sources in the regenerating newt limb by immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization.

Using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) reactive to newt limb regenerates, we hope to gain insight into the identity and function of regeneration significant molecules. mAb MT4 (matrix 4) identifies an extracellular matrix ( ECM) protein that is strongly up-regulated first in the distal stump and then in the blastema during regeneration. Within the first 24 hr after amputation the MT4 antigen is localized to an acellular space beneath the wound epithelium, and first appears in the basal cells of the wound epithelium between days 5 and 7. At mid-bud blastema stages, the MT4 antigen is homogeneously distributed as thin fibers in the blastema ECM, and is later largely restricted to the distal tip of the blastema and the areas of cartilage condensation. After extraction and immunoblotting, the MT4 antigen was observed as three reduced species of M(r) 225, 250, and 260. Taken together, the immunoblot and immunocytochemistry results suggested that mAb MT4 recognized newt fibronectin ( FN). Sequence from a cDNA (NvFN.10) obtained by screening a newt blastema cDNA expression library with mAb MT4 conclusively identified the MT4 antigen as FN. To further investigate the expression of FN in regeneration, cDNA NvFN.10 was used to construct a riboprobe and in situ hybridization was done. In the unamputated limb only a few scattered cells expressed the FN gene. Within the first 3 days after amputation strong hybridization signal was observed in the basal cells of the wound epithelium. Most of the stump cells that dedifferentiated and accumulated beneath the wound epithelium at 7 days expressed the FN gene, while the basal cells of the wound epithelium maintained their expression. At mid- and late-bud blastema stages the vast majority of the blastema cells were strongly expressing the FN gene, but the wound epithelial cells now showed only weak FN transcription. Thus initially FN comes from the plasma. Then FN is synthesized by both the wound epithelium and mesenchyme. Finally, at blastema stages FN is produced primarily by the mesenchyme. The expression pattern of FN throughout regeneration suggests that this glycoprotein has roles in wound epithelial and mesenchymal cell migration and mesenchymal cell proliferation and differentiation.[1]


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