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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Peroxisome proliferators and retinoids affect JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cell function.

To examine the hypothesis that nutritional signals regulate trophoblast cell function, JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells were treated with drugs that stimulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). These receptors are thought to mediate in part the effects of lipidic nutrients on gene expression. Because PPARs are modulated by interactions with retinoid-X receptors, we also examined the actions of the peroxisome proliferators in the presence of retinoids. Clofibric acid, a known peroxisome proliferator, suppressed JEG-3 cell growth in association with increases in the tumor suppressor p53 protein and its messenger RNA (mRNA). It reduced CG secretion and CG alpha and CG beta mRNAs in growing cells. However, clofibric acid did not induce peroxisome proliferation in the JEG-3 cells, as assessed by electron microscopy and immunostaining for catalase, a peroxisomal enzyme, or alter levels of mRNAs for peroxisomal proteins, sterol carrier protein-X/sterol carrier protein-2 and acyl-Coenzyme-A oxidase. The mitochondrial cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, cytochrome P450scc, was modestly increased in some experiments. All-trans-retinoic acid and 9-cis-retinoic acid increased CG secretion and CG alpha and CG beta mRNAs, but clofibric acid blunted these stimulatory effects. WY 14,643, another peroxisome proliferator, also reduced CG gene expression without increasing mRNAs encoding peroxisomal proteins or altering P450scc mRNA. The mRNA for a human PPAR, NUC1, was demonstrated in JEG-3 cells, and NUC1 mRNA was shown to be upregulated by 8-bromo-cAMP. We conclude 1) that JEG-3 cells express a PPAR and are subject to regulation by PPAR stimulators; 2) that PPAR stimulation in JEG-3 cells does not promote peroxisome proliferation; and 3) that peroxisome proliferators and retinoids differentially regulate JEG-3 cell endocrine activities. We suggest from these findings that JEG-3 cells possess mechanisms to respond to nutrient cues.[1]


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