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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage gene expression by Rhodobacter sphaeroides lipid A and SDZ 880.431.

Rhodobacter sphaeroides lipid A (RsDPLA) and SDZ 880.431 (3-aza-lipid X-4-phosphate) are prototypic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antagonists. Herein, we examined the ability of these structures to regulate murine macrophage tumor necrosis factor (TNF) secretion and LPS-inducible gene expression (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-alpha], interleukin-1 beta [IL-1 beta], IP-10, type 2 TNF receptor [TNFR-2], D3, and D8 genes). We report that RsDPLA alone (> 1 microgram/ml) induced low levels of TNF-alpha secretion and a selective pattern of gene expression in peritoneal exudate macrophages; SDZ 880.431 alone was completely inactive. When LPS was present at a low concentration (1 ng/ml), RsDPLA and SDZ 880.431 blocked TNF secretion and gene induction in a concentration-dependent fashion. In general, gene induction was measurably reduced by 10 to 30 ng of RsDPLA per ml or 300 ng of SDZ 880.431 per ml, but inhibition could be uniformly overridden by increasing the concentration of LPS. Although induction of all six genes by LPS was suppressed by either inhibitor, effective inhibitor concentrations depended on the gene of interest. Induction of TNFR-2 by LPS was relatively resistant to inhibition by RsDPLA, and induction of TNFR-2 and D3 was relatively resistant to inhibition by SDZ 880.431. When LPS was present at > or = 100 ng/ml, correspondingly high concentrations (> or = 20 micrograms/ml) of either inhibitor influenced gene expression in a bidirectional manner. Under these conditions, LPS-induced expression of IP-10, D3, and D8 was suppressed regardless of the LPS concentration used (concentrations tested up to 50 micrograms/ml), while expression of TNF-alpha mRNA was enhanced about fourfold. In toto, RsDPLA and SDZ 880.431, when present at low concentrations, act in a manner consistent with competitive inhibition of LPS, while at higher concentrations, these structures inhibit certain LPS responses noncompetitively and synergize with LPS for other responses.[1]


  1. Modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage gene expression by Rhodobacter sphaeroides lipid A and SDZ 880.431. Manthey, C.L., Perera, P.Y., Qureshi, N., Stütz, P.L., Hamilton, T.A., Vogel, S.N. Infect. Immun. (1993) [Pubmed]
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