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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Purification and characterization of SAR1p, a small GTP-binding protein required for transport vesicle formation from the endoplasmic reticulum.

SEC12 encodes an integral membrane glycoprotein essential for vesicle formation from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in yeast. The SAR1 gene was discovered as a multicopy suppressor of a sec12ts strain and encodes a 21-kDa GTP-binding protein also required for protein transport from the ER to the Golgi apparatus (Nakano, A., and Muramatsu, M. (1989) J. Cell Biol. 109, 2677-2691). We have purified Sar1p to apparent homogeneity from cells harboring a galactose-regulated recombinant SAR1. Purified Sar1p binds guanine nucleotides specifically and exhibits GTPase activity (0.001 min-1). Nucleotide exchange and hydrolysis rates are greatly increased in the presence of Mg2+ and nonionic detergents or phospholipids. An assay that measures the formation of a vesicle intermediate in ER to Golgi transport was devised that is dependent on the addition of purified Sar1p. This assay employs membranes prepared from wild-type cells and cytosol fractions depleted of Sar1p due to overproduction of Sec12p or by gel filtration chromatography. The gel-filtered cytosol requires the addition of Sar1p and GTP to support vesicle budding. Sar1p prebound with GTP gamma S inhibits Sar1p function in the vesicle formation assay. The results indicate a role for Sar1p in vesicle budding from the ER and suggest that GTP hydrolysis by Sar1p is required for this event.[1]


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