The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Effects of endothelins 1, 2 and 3 on mucosal blood flow in the upper airways.

The three endothlins 1, 2 and 3 (ET-1, ET-2 and ET-3) are 21-amino-acid peptides which in a previous study in the rabbit have been shown to increase both mucociliary activity in the maxillary sinus in vivo and ciliary beat frequency (CBF) in sinus and tracheal samples in vitro. We have also demonstrated positive immunohistochemical staining for endothelin in the epithelium of samples from both maxillary sinus and trachea. The aims of the present investigation were to study the effects of the three endothlins on mucosal blood flow in the maxillary sinus of rabbits and the nasal mucosa of humans. ET-1, ET-2 and ET-3 decreased mucosal blood flow in the maxillary sinus of rabbits measured in vivo with laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Significant dose-response relationships were established for all endothelins. A comparison of the regression lines of the dose-response relationships for ET-1 and ET-2 did not show any difference, whereas the regression line of the dose-response relationships for ET-3 differed significantly. Maximum effect was seen at 50.0 pmol/kg ET-1, which reduced blood flow by -74.4 +/- 7.0%. Vasoconstriction became evident 30 s after administration of the endothelins, reached its maximum after 1 min and lasted 10 to 20 min. ET-1 induced stronger vasconstriction than ET-2 and ET-3 at equal dosage, except at 100.0 pmol/kg, where ET-2 had the same effect as ET-1. No tachyphylaxis was observed after repeated 10.0 pmol/kg-dose of ET-1. Similarly, there was no tachyphylactic effect on mucociliary activity in vivo in the maxillary sinus of rabbits after repeated challenges with ET-1 at 10.0 pmol/kg. Pretreatment with the cyclooxygenase inhibitors diclofenac had no inhibitory effect on the vasoconstriction induced by ET-1 at 10.0 and 50.0 pmol/kg. In 6 human volunteers the peak blood flow in the nasal septum decreased by -41.8 +/- 11.6% (p < 0.05) and AUC (area under curve) values decreased by -612.0 +/- 322.4% (p < 0.05) after challenge with 0.1 nmol ET-1, delivered in aerosol form into the nose. The effects of the endothelins on the blood flow in the upper airways of rabbit and man indicate that they have a functional role in the regulation of the mucosal vasculature of the upper airways.[1]


WikiGenes - Universities