The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

EDN2  -  endothelin 2

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ET-2, ET2, Endothelin-2, PPET2, Preproendothelin-2
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of EDN2


High impact information on EDN2


Chemical compound and disease context of EDN2


Biological context of EDN2


Anatomical context of EDN2

  • As well as its chemotactic properties, ET-2 leads to activation of macrophages [2].
  • We found that ET-2 is a chemoattractant for macrophages and THP-1 monocytic cells, but not for freshly isolated monocytes [2].
  • 3 ET-1 is 2.5 times more potent than ET-2 in both the airway and vascular tissues, and both forms of the peptide have geometric mean EC50 values 5 times greater than in the isolated bronchial tissue than in the pulmonary artery [17].
  • 5 Specific binding on the smooth muscle of human airway and pulmonary arterial tissue to both ET-1 and ET-2 was detected in autoradiographic studies [17].
  • 2. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and ET-2 were potent constrictors of umbilical vein with EC50 values of 9.2 nM and 29.6 nM, respectively [18].

Associations of EDN2 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of EDN2

  • Endothelin-2 and sarafotoxin S6B inhibited [125I]-PD151242 binding to renal tissue whereas ET-3 and sarafotoxin S6C were less effective [22].

Regulatory relationships of EDN2


Other interactions of EDN2

  • EDN1, EDN2, and EDN3 were mapped to 6p23-p24, 1p34, and 20q13.2-q13.3, respectively [6].
  • Endothelins (ET-1, ET-2 and ET-3) are 21-amino acid vasoactive peptides that bind to G-protein-linked transmembrane receptors, ET-RA and ET-RB [2].
  • Of the other genes, PPET-2 and ET(B) were expressed in all tissue specimens and no differences were observed between tumor subtypes or tumor-affected and normal tissue specimens, whereas PPET-3 and ECE-2 were present in all tissue specimens but were barely detectable [25].
  • These results suggest that big ET-2 is composed of 38 and not 37 amino acid residues, and that a putative ET-2-converting enzyme (ECE-2) should be classified as a phosphoramidon-sensitive neutral metalloprotease, bearing a resemblance to the putative ET-1-converting enzyme (ECE-1) in endothelial cells [26].
  • The activity of endothelin-2 was not modified by phentolamine, saralasin and indomethacin, thus excluding a direct or indirect activation of alpha-adrenoceptors and angiotensin receptors as well as the synthesis of cyclooxygenase products [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of EDN2


  1. Fifteen polymorphisms in endothelin-1, endothelin-2 and endothelin-receptor-A genotyped by four duplex assays and seven simple assays on a LightCycler using hybridization probes. Arjomand-Nahad, F., Landt, O., Stangl, K., Diefenbach, K., Roots, I. Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Endothelin-2 is a macrophage chemoattractant: implications for macrophage distribution in tumors. Grimshaw, M.J., Wilson, J.L., Balkwill, F.R. Eur. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. cDNA cloning and chromosomal assignment of the endothelin 2 gene: vasoactive intestinal contractor peptide is rat endothelin 2. Bloch, K.D., Hong, C.C., Eddy, R.L., Shows, T.B., Quertermous, T. Genomics (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Endothelin-2-converting enzyme from human renal adenocarcinoma cells is a phosphoramidon-sensitive, membrane-bound metalloprotease. Shinmi, O., Yorimitsu, K., Moroi, K., Nishiyama, M., Sugita, Y., Saito, T., Inagaki, Y., Masaki, T., Kimura, S. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. International Union of Pharmacology. XXIX. Update on endothelin receptor nomenclature. Davenport, A.P. Pharmacol. Rev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Chromosomal assignments of the human endothelin family genes: the endothelin-1 gene (EDN1) to 6p23-p24, the endothelin-2 gene (EDN2) to 1p34, and the endothelin-3 gene (EDN3) to 20q13.2-q13.3. Arinami, T., Ishikawa, M., Inoue, A., Yanagisawa, M., Masaki, T., Yoshida, M.C., Hamaguchi, H. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. A role for endothelin-2 and its receptors in breast tumor cell invasion. Grimshaw, M.J., Hagemann, T., Ayhan, A., Gillett, C.E., Binder, C., Balkwill, F.R. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Endothelin receptor antagonists in congestive heart failure: a new therapeutic principle for the future? Spieker, L.E., Noll, G., Ruschitzka, F.T., Lüscher, T.F. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Interstitial duplication of the short arm of chromosome 1 in a newborn with congenital heart disease and multiple malformations. Warden, C.R., Pillers, D.A., Rice, M.J., Wildes, J., Livingston, J.S., Clark, B.A., Gilhooly, J.T., Magenis, R.E. Am. J. Med. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. An endothelin-1 mediated autocrine growth loop involved in human renal tubular regeneration. Ong, A.C., Jowett, T.P., Firth, J.D., Burton, S., Karet, F.E., Fine, L.G. Kidney Int. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Endothelin-2 down-regulation occurs in parallel with the anti-proliferative effect of dimethylsulfoxide in BeWO human choriocarcinoma cell line. Rebourcet, R., Mignot, T.M., Robert, B., Ferré, F. Cell. Mol. Biol. (Noisy-le-grand) (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Ursodeoxycholic acid reduces increased circulating endothelin 2 in primary biliary cirrhosis. Dimoulios, P., Kolios, G., Notas, G., Matrella, E., Xidakis, C., Koulentaki, M., Tsagarakis, N., Kouroumalis, A., Kouroumalis, E. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Binding sites for iodinated endothelin-1, endothelin-2 and endothelin-3 demonstrated on human uterine glandular epithelial cells by quantitative high-resolution autoradiography. Davenport, A.P., Cameron, I.T., Smith, S.K., Brown, M.J. J. Endocrinol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Immunoreactive endothelin-1, endothelin-2 and big endothelin-1 in follicular fluids of women undergoing ovulation induction for in-vitro fertilization. Haq, A., Kayali, M., Hammami, M.M., Jaroudi, K., al-Sedairy, S.T. Hum. Reprod. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Endothelin-A receptors mediate vasoconstriction of capillaries in the spiral ligament. Sadanaga, M., Liu, J., Wangemann, P. Hear. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Alternatively spliced mRNAs for human endothelin-2 and their tissue distribution. O'Reilly, G., Charnock-Jones, D.S., Morrison, J.J., Cameron, I.T., Davenport, A.P., Smith, S.K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. The mechanism of action of endothelin in human lung. McKay, K.O., Black, J.L., Armour, C.L. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Endothelin converting enzyme (ECE) activity in human vascular smooth muscle. Maguire, J.J., Johnson, C.M., Mockridge, J.W., Davenport, A.P. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Contraction to big endothelin-1, big endothelin-2 and big endothelin-3, and endothelin-converting enzyme inhibition in human isolated bronchi. Yap, E.Y., Battistini, B., McKay, K.O. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Activation of phospholipase A2 and phospholipase C by endothelin-1 in human endometrium. Ahmed, A., Cameron, I.T., Ferriani, R.A., Smith, S.K. J. Endocrinol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Role of endothelin in diabetic vascular complications. Lam, H.C. Endocrine (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. [125I]-PD151242: a selective ligand for endothelin ETA receptors in human kidney which localizes to renal vasculature. Davenport, A.P., Kuc, R.E., Hoskins, S.L., Karet, F.E., Fitzgerald, F. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Localization of endothelin immunoreactivity and demonstration of constrictory endothelin-A receptors in human coronary arteries and veins. Saetrum Opgaard, O., Adner, M., Gulbenkian, S., Edvinsson, L. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Endothelin in human nasal mucosa. Mullol, J., Chowdhury, B.A., White, M.V., Ohkubo, K., Rieves, R.D., Baraniuk, J., Hausfeld, J.N., Shelhamer, J.H., Kaliner, M.A. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Endothelin axis expression is markedly different in the two main subtypes of renal cell carcinoma. Douglas, M.L., Richardson, M.M., Nicol, D.L. Cancer (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Effect of phosphoramidon on big endothelin-2 conversion into endothelin-2 in human renal adenocarcinoma (ACHN) cells. Analysis of endothelin-2 biosynthetic pathway. Yorimitsu, K., Shinmi, O., Nishiyama, M., Moroi, K., Sugita, Y., Saito, T., Inagaki, Y., Masaki, T., Kimura, S. FEBS Lett. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Contractile effect of endothelin-2 on the isolated human saphenous vein. Poli, E., Casoli, C., Spaggiari, I., Starcich, R., Bertaccini, G. Archives internationales de pharmacodynamie et de thérapie. (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. Transgenic rats expressing the human ET-2 gene: a model for the study of endothelin actions in vivo. Liefeldt, L., Schönfelder, G., Böcker, W., Hocher, B., Talsness, C.E., Rettig, R., Paul, M. J. Mol. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Characterization of the renal phenotype of transgenic rats expressing the human endothelin-2 gene. Hocher, B., Liefeldt, L., Thöne-Reineke, C., Orzechowski, H.D., Distler, A., Bauer, C., Paul, M. Hypertension (1996) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities