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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Myelopoiesis and myeloproliferative disorders.

Myeloid cells arise from a common stem cell whose development is regulated by stimulatory and inhibitory growth factors. Pluripotential hematopoietic stem cells are most influenced by IL-3, GM-CSF, and stem cell factor while committed progenitor cells are regulated by variable concentrations of GM-CSF, G-CSF, M-CSF, IL-5, Epo, and Tpo. As a result of their common origin, a key point to remember about myeloproliferative disorders is the involvement of multiple cell lines in dysplastic and neoplastic conditions. Dysplastic changes may signal early neoplastic changes with cases progressing to acute leukemia. Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is associated with anemia or multiple cytopenias, normal to hypercellular bone marrow, ineffective hematopoiesis, and less than 30% blast cells of all nucleated cells in the bone marrow. Chronic myeloid leukemias also have less than 30% blast cells of all nucleated cells in the bone marrow and are distinguished from MDS by elevated cell counts of one or more cell lines with mature forms predominating. Acute myeloid leukemias, often the end result of all myeloproliferative disorders, are recognized by equal or greater 30% blast cells of all nucleated cells in the bone marrow. Additional diagnostic information from cytochemical stains, immunohistochemical staining, and cytogenetic analysis can influence the final diagnosis when morphology alone is equivocal. In conclusion, prognosis and response to treatment are best determined by application of a uniform set of standards in evaluating hematolymphatic neoplasia. Critical to diagnosis are complete blood and bone marrow evaluations including observation for dysplastic changes and blast cell quantitation. In addition, evidence for tissue infiltration identified through cytologic or histologic evaluations of lymph node, spleen, or liver is recommended.[1]


  1. Myelopoiesis and myeloproliferative disorders. Raskin, R.E. Vet. Clin. North Am. Small Anim. Pract. (1996) [Pubmed]
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