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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Human cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene proximal promoter contains dietary cholesterol positive responsive elements and mediates expression in small intestine and periphery while predominant liver and spleen expression is controlled by 5'-distal sequences. Cis-acting sequences mapped in transgenic mice.

The plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) facilitates the transfer of high density lipoprotein cholesteryl esters to other lipoproteins and appears to be a key regulated component of reverse cholesterol transport. Earlier studies showed that a CETP transgene containing natural flanking sequences (-3.4 kilobase pairs (kbp) upstream, +2.2 kbp downstream) was expressed in an authentic tissue distribution and induced in liver and other tissues in response to dietary or endogenous hypercholesterolemia. In order to localize the DNA elements responsible for these effects, we prepared transgenic mice expressing six new DNA constructs containing different amounts of natural flanking sequence of the CETP gene. Tissue-specific expression and dietary cholesterol response of CETP mRNA were determined. The native pattern of predominant expression in liver and spleen with cholesterol induction was shown by a -3.4 (5'), +0.2 (3') kbp transgene, indicating no major contribution of distal 3'-sequences. Serial 5'-deletions showed that a -570 base pairs (bp) transgene gave predominant expression in small intestine with cholesterol induction of CETP mRNA in that organ, and a -370 bp transgene gave highest expression in adrenal gland with partial dietary cholesterol induction of CETP mRNA and plasma activity. Further deletion to -138 bp 5'-flanking sequence resulted in a transgene that was not expressed in vivo. Both the -3.4 kbp and -138 bp transgenes were expressed when transfected into a cultured murine hepatocyte cell line, but only the former was induced by treating the cells with LDL. When linked to a human apoA-I transgene, the -570 to -138 segment of the CETP gene promoter gave rise to a relative positive response of hepatic apoA-I mRNA to the high cholesterol diet in two out of three transgenic lines. Thus, 5'-elements between -3,400 and -570 bp in the CETP promoter endow predominant expression in liver and spleen. Elements between -570 and -370 are required for expression in small intestine and some other tissues, and elements between -370 and -138 contribute to adrenal expression. The minimal CETP promoter element associated with a positive sterol response in vivo was found in the proximal CETP gene promoter between -370 and -138 bp. This region contains a tandem repeat of a sequence known to mediate sterol down-regulation of the HMG-CoA reductase gene, suggesting either the presence of separate positive and negative sterol response elements in this region or the use of a common DNA element for both positive and negative sterol responses.[1]


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