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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Mitochondria support inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-mediated Ca2+ waves in cultured oligodendrocytes.

We have examined the spatial and temporal nature of Ca2+ signals activated via the phosphoinositide pathway in oligodendrocytes and the cellular specializations underlying oligodendrocyte Ca2+ response characteristics. Cultured cortical oligodendrocytes were incubated with fluo 3 or fura 2, and digital video fluorescence microscopy was used to study the effect of methacholine on [Ca2+]i. Single peaks, oscillations, and steady-state plateau [Ca2+]i elevations were evoked by increasing agonist concentration. The peaks and oscillations were found to be Ca2+ wave fronts, which propagate via distinct amplification regions in the cell where the kinetics of Ca2+ release (amplitude and rate of rise of response) are elevated. Staining with 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolecarbocyanine++ + iodide (JC-1) and 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide revealed that mitochondria are found in groups of three or more in oligodendrocyte processes and that the groups are distributed with considerable distance separating them. Cross-correlation analysis showed a high degree of correlation between sites where mitochondria are present and peaks in the amplitude and rate of rise of the Ca2+ response. Intramitochondrial Ca2+ concentration, measured using rhod 2, increased upon treatment with methacholine. Methacholine also evoked a rapid change in mitochondrial membrane potential as measured by the J-aggregate fluorescence of JC-1. Pretreatment with the mitochondrial inhibitors carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (1 microM, 2 min) or antimycin (2 microg/ml, 2 min) altered the methacholine-evoked Ca2+ response in most cells studied, responses being either markedly potentiated or inhibited. The results of this study demonstrate that stimulation of phosphoinositide-coupled muscarinic acetylcholinoceptors activates propagating Ca2+ wave fronts in oligodendrocytes and that the characteristics of these waves are dependent on mitochondrial location and function.[1]


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