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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Spinal administration of adrenergic agents produces analgesia in amphibians.

Direct intraspinal injection of the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine, and the alpha-adrenergic agents dexmedetomidine and clonidine, produced a dose-dependent elevation of pain thresholds in the Northern grass frog, Rana pipiens. Significant analgesic effects were noted for at least 4 h. The analgesic effect of intraspinal dexmedetomidine or epinephrine was blocked by systemic pretreatment with the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonists, yohimbine and atipamezole, but not with the alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin. Dose-response analyses showed that dexmedetomidine, epinephrine, norepinephrine had similar analgesic potencies, but clonidine was significantly less potent. Analgesia was observed without accompanying motor or sedative effects. These results suggest that alpha 2-adrenoceptor mechanisms which mediate analgesia may have evolved early in vertebrate evolution and that descending epinephrine-containing fibers in the amphibian nervous system may be the source of endogenous catecholamines regulating nociceptive sensitivity in the amphibian spinal cord.[1]


  1. Spinal administration of adrenergic agents produces analgesia in amphibians. Stevens, C.W., Brenner, G.M. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
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