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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Biotransformation of all-trans-retinal, 13-cis-retinal, and 9-cis-retinal catalyzed by conceptal cytosol and microsomes.

Oxidative conversions of all-trans-retinal (t-RAL), 13-cis-retinal (13-cRAL), and 9-cis-retinal (9-cRAL) to their corresponding retinoic acids (RAs) catalyzed by rat conceptal cytosol (RCC) or microsomes (RCM) were studied. The primary product of RCC-catalyzed oxidations of both t-RAL and 13-cRAL was t-RA, with only trace amounts of 13-cRA and 9-cRA. In the RCC-catalyzed oxidation of 9-cRAL, generated t-RA, 9-cRA, and 13-cRA constituted approximately 56, 34, and 10%, respectively, of the total RAs. For all RCC-catalyzed retinal oxidations, NAD was a much more effective cofactor than NADP. And t-RAL and 13-cRAL were much better substrates than 9-cRAL. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, citral, and disulfiram were investigated as inhibitors, but only citral and disulfiram effectively inhibited the RCC-catalyzed conversion of t-RAL or 13-cRAL to t-RA. Methanol and ethanol failed to inhibit either reaction even at very high concentrations (> or = 10 mM). RCM exhibited lower specific enzymatic activities than RCC in catalyzing oxidations of t-RAL, 13-cRAL, and 9-cRAL, indicating that the cytosolic fraction was dominant for converting retinals to RAs. The predominant RA produced from RCM-catalyzed oxidations of t-RAL, 13-cRAL, or 9-cRAL was t-RA for each substrate, and again NAD was a much more effective cofactor than NADP in all cases. For RCM-catalyzed oxidations of RALs, 13-cRAL was a much better substrate than t-RAL or 9-cRAL. Methanol and ethanol were not effective inhibitors for RCM-catalyzed oxidations of t-RAL or 13-cRAL. In RCM-catalyzed reactions, citral (10 mM) completely inhibited oxidation of t-RAL but showed only a minor effect on oxidation of 13-cRAL. 13-cRA was converted almost completely to t-RA after 2 hr of incubation with RCC.[1]


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