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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Comparative in vitro assessment of sparfloxacin activity and spectrum using results from over 14,000 pathogens isolated at 190 medical centers in the USA. SPAR Study Group.

Sparfloxacin, a new orally administered fluoroquinolone, was tested against 14,182 clinical strains isolated (generally blood stream and respiratory tract cultures) at nearly 200 hospitals in the United States (USA) and Canada. Sparfloxacin activity was compared with 13 other compounds by Etest (AB BIODISK, Solna, Sweden), broth microdilution, or a standardized disk diffusion method. Using the Food and Drug Administration/product package insert MIC breakpoint for sparfloxacin susceptibility (< or = 0.5 microgram/ml), 94% of Streptococcus pneumoniae (2666 isolates) and 89% of the other streptococci (554 isolates) were susceptible. However, at < or = 1 microgram/ml (the breakpoint for all nonstreptococcal species) sparfloxacin susceptibility rates increased to 100% and 98%, respectively, for the two groups of streptococci. Only 50% and 65% of pneumococci were susceptible to ciprofloxacin (MIC90, 3 micrograms/ml) and penicillin (MIC90, 1.5 micrograms/ml), respectively. Although there were significant differences between regions in the USA in the frequency of penicillin-resistant pneumococcal strains, results indicate that the overall sparfloxacin MIC90 was uniformly at 0.5 microgram/ml. Nearly all (> or = 99%) Haemophilus species and Moraxella catarrhalis, including those harboring beta-lactamases, were susceptible to sparfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Only cefprozil and macrolides demonstrated lower potency and spectrum against these two species. Sparfloxacin was active against oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (96 to 97%), Klebsiella spp. (95%), and other tested enteric bacilli (93%). Comparison between broth microdilution MIC and disk diffusion interpretive results for M. catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and the Enterobacteriaceae showed an absolute intermethod categorical agreement of > 95% using current sparfloxacin breakpoints, in contrast to those of cefpodoxime for S. aureus where a conspicuous discord (98% versus 59%) between methods was discovered. These results demonstrate that sparfloxacin possesses sufficient in vitro activity and spectrum versus pathogens that cause respiratory tract infections (indications), especially strains resistant to other drug classes such as the earlier fluoroquinolones, oral cephalosporins, macrolides, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. The sparfloxacin susceptibility breakpoint for streptococci may require modification (< or = 1 microgram/ml) based on the MIC population analysis presented here. A modal MIC (0.38 to 0.5 microgram/ml) was observed at the current breakpoint. Regardless, sparfloxacin inhibited 89% (nonpneumococcal Streptococcus spp.) to 100% (Haemophilus spp., M. catarrhalis) of the isolates tested with a median activity of 97% against indicated species.[1]


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