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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Successful treatment of transient acquired factor X deficiency by plasmapheresis with concomitant intravenous immunoglobulin and steroid therapy.

Two patients with no history of previous bleeding diatheses presented with active bleeding from multiple body sites, declining hemoglobin levels, and markedly prolonged prothrombin times (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin times (aPTT) with incomplete correction on PT mix assays. Both patients demonstrated a severe deficiency of factor X (F.X) (<1%; reference range 60-150%). F.X levels and bleeding were refractory to multiple transfusions of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in both patients. In contrast, daily therapeutic plasma exchange (PLEX) with concomitant administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IV IgG) and steroids produced a rapid increase in F.X levels with cessation of bleeding, followed by stabilization and normalization of F.X levels and progressive correction of coagulation times. Neither patient has demonstrated a recurrence of the bleeding tendency following discontinuation of steroid therapy. These patients had transient acquired F.X deficiency, a rare coagulopathy, which can result in a lethal bleeding diathesis. An IgG inhibitor that selectively inhibited F.X activation in Russell's viper venom or tissue factor/F.VIIa assays was demonstrated in one patient's pretreatment plasma. Previous treatment of hemorrhage in transient acquired F.X deficiency has been prothrombin complex and/or activated clotting concentrates, which can be associated with transient hypercoagulable states. This is the first reported use of PLEX in transient acquired F.X deficiency. PLEX is safe, efficacious, and rapidly restores hemostasis in this rare acquired bleeding disorder.[1]


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