The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Expression of growth differentiation factor-9 messenger ribonucleic acid in ovarian and nonovarian rodent and human tissues.

Growth differentiation factor-9 ( GDF-9) is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta family that is reported to be expressed exclusively in the ovary, specifically in the oocyte. Female mice deficient in GDF-9 are infertile, suggesting that GDF-9 receptor agonists and antagonists may specifically modulate fertility. We now report that GDF-9 messenger RNA (mRNA) is expressed in nonovarian tissues in mice, rats, and humans. GDF-9 mRNA was detected in mouse and rat ovary, testis, and hypothalamus by Northern blot and RT-PCR analyses. The localization of GDF-9 mRNA specifically in oocytes of the mouse ovary was confirmed by in situ hybridization histochemistry. In mouse testis, although localization in Sertoli cell cytoplasm could not be ruled out, mRNA expression was observed in large pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids. The expression of GDF-9 mRNA in human tissues was assessed by Northern blot and RT-PCR analyses. GDF-9 mRNA was observed in ovary and testis and, surprisingly, in diverse nongonadal tissues, including pituitary, uterus, and bone marrow. Therefore, GDF-9 mRNA expression in rodents is not exclusive to the ovary, but includes the testis and hypothalamus. Furthermore, human GDF-9 mRNA is expressed not only in the gonads, but also in several extragonadal tissues. The function and relevance of nongonadal GDF-9 mRNA are not known, but may affect strategies for contraception and fertility that are based on GDF-9 activity.[1]


  1. Expression of growth differentiation factor-9 messenger ribonucleic acid in ovarian and nonovarian rodent and human tissues. Fitzpatrick, S.L., Sindoni, D.M., Shughrue, P.J., Lane, M.V., Merchenthaler, I.J., Frail, D.E. Endocrinology (1998) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities