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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

4-Hexylresorcinol as inhibitor of shrimp melanosis: efficacy and residues studies; evaluation of possible toxic effect in a human intestinal in vitro model (Caco-2); preliminary safety assessment.

Studies were performed on the efficacy, residues and in vitro enterocyte toxicity of 4-hexylresorcinol (4-HR), which could be utilized as an inhibitor of shrimp melanosis (black spot). Mediterranean sea shrimp (Parapaeneus longirostris) were treated with solutions of 4-HR in sea-water, at three different concentrations, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg of shrimp, to test its antioxidative property. As a comparison a group of shrimp was treated with sodium metabisulphite (1 g/kg), while another group was left untreated. 4-HR showed a marked ability to inhibit or slow down melanosis (black spot) in shrimp; the most effective concentration was 100 mg/kg within an optimum period of 7 days but with effects up to the tenth day. During the first 5 days, 4-HR residues in the edible part of the shrimp showed a fast decrease in all three groups, going from initial average values of 20 mg/kg at 0 time, to 0.9 in the group treated at 25 mg/kg; from 42 to 1.8 mg/kg in the group at 50 mg/kg and from 85 to 1.9 mg/kg in the group at 100 mg/kg. In vitro studies on enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells did not indicate any cytotoxic effect up to a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml. Moreover, no inhibition of protein synthesis was observed, which lends further support to the absence of significant damage to the intestinal mucosa induced by 4-HR. The available database on 4-HR pharmacology and toxicology is inadequate to determine even a provisional ADI. There is negative evidence of carcinogenesis and no significant untoward effects were observed in humans when it was used as an anthelmintic. However, it is not possible to determine a NOEL for non-genotoxic effects. 4-HR could become an interesting alternative to the use of sulphites to prevent black spot. However, a more complete database is needed to achieve a regulatory evaluation.[1]


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