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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Calcium signaling by cyclic ADP-ribose, NAADP, and inositol trisphosphate are involved in distinct functions in ascidian oocytes.

ADP-ribosyl cyclase catalyzes the synthesis of two structurally and functionally different Ca2+ releasing molecules, cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) from beta-NAD and nicotinic acid-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) from beta-NADP. Their Ca2+-mobilizing effects in ascidian oocytes were characterized in connection with that induced by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3). Fertilization of the oocyte is accompanied by a decrease in the oocyte Ca2+ current and an increase in membrane capacitance due to the addition of membrane to the cell surface. Both of these electrical changes could be induced by perfusion, through a patch pipette, of nanomolar concentrations of cADPR or its precursor, beta-NAD, into unfertilized oocytes. The changes induced by beta-NAD showed a distinctive delay consistent with its enzymatic conversion to cADPR. The cADPR-induced changes were inhibited by preloading the oocytes with a Ca2+ chelator, indicating the effects were due to Ca2+ release induced by cADPR. Consistently, ryanodine (at high concentration) or 8-amino-cADPR, a specific antagonist of cADPR, but not heparin, inhibited the cADPR-induced changes. Both inhibitors likewise blocked the membrane insertion that normally occurred at fertilization consistent with it being mediated by a ryanodine receptor. The effects of NAADP were different from those of cADPR. Although NAADP induced a similar decrease in the Ca2+ current, no membrane insertion occurred. Moreover, pretreatment of the oocytes with NAADP inhibited the post-fertilization Ca2+ oscillation while cADPR did not. A similar Ca2+ oscillation could be artificially induced by perfusing into the oocytes a high concentration of InsP3 and NAADP could likewise inhibit such an InsP3-induced oscillation. This work shows that three independent Ca2+ signaling pathways are present in the oocytes and that each is involved in mediating distinct changes associated with fertilization. The results are consistent with a hierarchical organization of Ca2+ stores in the oocyte.[1]


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