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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Role of CYP2A5 and 2G1 in acetaminophen metabolism and toxicity in the olfactory mucosa of the Cyp1a2(-/-) mouse.

Acetaminophen (AP) is a widely-used analgesic agent that has been linked to human liver and kidney disease with prolonged or high-dose usage. In rodents, the target organs that are affected include liver, kidney, and the olfactory mucosa. AP toxicity requires cytochrome P450(CYP)-mediated metabolic activation, and the isozymes CYP1A2, 2E1, and 3A are known to activate AP in the human. In the present study, we determined that olfactory mucosal toxicity of AP was not different between the Cyp1a2(+/+) wild-type and the Cyp1a2(-/-) knockout mouse, whereas the hepatic toxicity of AP was significantly diminished in Cyp1a2(-/-) mice. Western blots of olfactory mucosa revealed that CYP2E1 and CYP3A levels are similar between untreated Cyp1a2(+/+) and Cyp1a2(-/-) mice. Diallyl sulfide (DAS), a known inhibitor of CYP2E1 and of CYP2A10/2A11 (the rabbit orthologue of mouse CYP2A5), completely eliminated olfactory toxicity of AP in both the Cyp1a2(-/-) and wild-type mouse olfactory mucosa. We found that heterologously expressed mouse CYP2A5 and CYP2G1 enzymes (known to be present in olfactory mucosa) form 3-hydroxyacetaminophen (3-OH-AP) and 3-(glutathion-S-yl)acetaminophen (GS-AP); CYP2A5 is considerably more active than 2G1. Addition of GSH caused increases in GS-AP proportional to decreases in 3-OH-AP, suggesting that these two metabolites arise from a common precursor or are formed by way of competing pathways. We also found that both CYP2A5 and CYP2G1 are inhibitable by DAS in vitro. These studies provide strong evidence that, in addition to CYP2E1, CYP2A5 and 2G1 are important in AP bioactivation in the mouse olfactory mucosa and that CYP1A2 appears to be of minor importance for AP olfactory toxicity.[1]


  1. Role of CYP2A5 and 2G1 in acetaminophen metabolism and toxicity in the olfactory mucosa of the Cyp1a2(-/-) mouse. Genter, M.B., Liang, H.C., Gu, J., Ding, X., Negishi, M., McKinnon, R.A., Nebert, D.W. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
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