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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

NEUTRAL RED     N',N',3-trimethylphenazine- 2,8-diamine

Synonyms: CHEMBL278037, SureCN3193054, NSC3092, AC1L1WMQ, CTK8I4356, ...
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Disease relevance of Toluylene Red

  • We compared three commonly used assays: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), neutral red (NR), and clonal survival, using human osteogenic sarcoma (HOS) cell line U-2OS [1].
  • As determined with the neutral red (NR) cytotoxicity assay, the 24-h midpoint (NR50) toxicity values, in mM, were 0.11 for BZP and 29.5 for benzoic acid, the stable metabolite of BZP [2].

High impact information on Toluylene Red

  • Cytotoxicity tests, i.e., neutral red (NR), MTT and kenacid blue (KB) assays, were performed to assess the influence of the material extracts on lysosomes, mitochondria and cell proliferation, respectively [3].
  • Furthermore, M inhibited aerobic photolysis of NR photoinduced with VIS and UV rays faster and more effectively, than AA, GSH or vitamin E. AA with NR, under aerobic conditions during irradiation with VIS and UV acted as a pro-oxidant [4].
  • Furthermore, spectral measurements for aerobic photolytic reaction of neutral red (NR) and degree of inhibition of photolysis with M, glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid (AA) and vitamin E analogue Trolox were studied at room temperature 25 degrees C, using visible (VIS) and ultra-violet (UV) radiations [4].
  • The MTS/PMS assay and neutral red (NR) retention were performed along with quantitation of ATP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and extracellular protein [5].
  • In A431 cells, treatment with 20 mM APAP reduced viability by 57% (MTT) and 69% (NR) versus control (100%) [6].


  1. Dead or dying: the importance of time in cytotoxicity assays using arsenite as an example. Komissarova, E.V., Saha, S.K., Rossman, T.G. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Benzoyl peroxide cytotoxicity evaluated in vitro with the human keratinocyte cell line, RHEK-1. Babich, H., Zuckerbraun, H.L., Wurzburger, B.J., Rubin, Y.L., Borenfreund, E., Blau, L. Toxicology (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. The influence of titania/hydroxyapatite composite coatings on in vitro osteoblasts behaviour. Ramires, P.A., Romito, A., Cosentino, F., Milella, E. Biomaterials (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Antioxidant capacity of the neurohormone melatonin. Sofic, E., Rimpapa, Z., Kundurovic, Z., Sapcanin, A., Tahirovic, I., Rustembegovic, A., Cao, G. Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Evaluation of different toxicity assays applied to proliferating cells and to stratified epithelium in relation to permeability enhancement with glycocholate. Eirheim, H.U., Bundgaard, C., Nielsen, H.M. Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Acetaminophen-induced toxicity to human epidermoid cell line A431 and hepatoblastoma cell line Hep G2, in vitro, is diminished by silymarin. Shear, N.H., Malkiewicz, I.M., Klein, D., Koren, G., Randor, S., Neuman, M.G. Skin Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
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