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Chemical Compound Review

trolox     6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8- tetramethyl-chroman-2...

Synonyms: TROLOX C, Prestwick_855, CHEMBL153, SureCN3226, Trolox(TM), ...
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Disease relevance of trolox


High impact information on trolox


Chemical compound and disease context of trolox


Biological context of trolox


Anatomical context of trolox

  • Here we examined the possible cytoprotective effect of Trolox in cultured hepatocytes and in the rat liver [3].
  • Our results show the following: 1) E2 and Trolox attenuated the neurotoxicity mediated by A beta and H2O2 as measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction assays, quantification of apoptotic cells, and morphological studies of the integrity of the neurite network [16].
  • alpha-Tocopherol and trolox block the early intracellular events (TBARS and calcium rises) elicited by oxidized low density lipoproteins in cultured endothelial cells [17].
  • On the other hand, diphenyleneiodonium and resiniferatoxin, inhibitors of plasma membrane oxidases, protected primary human fibroblasts against UVA, as potently as the lipid peroxidation chain breaker Trolox [18].
  • The antioxidant activity of Trolox during peroxidation of membranes determined by measurements of the absolute rate constant for inhibition of oxygen uptake, kinh, was found to vary with the membrane surface charge that is controlled by variation in pH [19].

Associations of trolox with other chemical compounds


Gene context of trolox


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of trolox


  1. Enhanced sensitivity of ubiquinone-deficient mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to products of autoxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids. Do, T.Q., Schultz, J.R., Clarke, C.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Trolox selectively enhances arsenic-mediated oxidative stress and apoptosis in APL and other malignant cell lines. Diaz, Z., Colombo, M., Mann, K.K., Su, H., Smith, K.N., Bohle, D.S., Schipper, H.M., Miller, W.H. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Trolox protects rat hepatocytes against oxyradical damage and the ischemic rat liver from reperfusion injury. Wu, T.W., Hashimoto, N., Au, J.X., Wu, J., Mickle, D.A., Carey, D. Hepatology (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Decreased antioxidant defence and increased oxidant stress during dexamethasone-induced apoptosis: bcl-2 prevents the loss of antioxidant enzyme activity. Baker, A.F., Briehl, M.M., Dorr, R., Powis, G. Cell Death Differ. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Cyclosporine A protects against arachidonic acid toxicity in rat hepatocytes: role of CYP2E1 and mitochondria. Wu, D., Cederbaum, A.I. Hepatology (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Trolox inhibits apoptosis in irradiated MOLT-4 lymphocytes. McClain, D.E., Kalinich, J.F., Ramakrishnan, N. FASEB J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Histidine-induced injury to cultured liver cells, effects of histidine derivatives and of iron chelators. Rauen, U., Klempt, S., de Groot, H. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Novel potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation with protective effects against reperfusion arrhythmias. Koufaki, M., Calogeropoulou, T., Detsi, A., Roditis, A., Kourounakis, A.P., Papazafiri, P., Tsiakitzis, K., Gaitanaki, C., Beis, I., Kourounakis, P.N. J. Med. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Maternal infusion of antioxidants (Trolox and ascorbic acid) protects the fetal heart in rabbit fetal hypoxia. Tan, S., Liu, Y.Y., Nielsen, V.G., Skinner, K., Kirk, K.A., Baldwin, S.T., Parks, D.A. Pediatr. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Opposite action of S-adenosyl methionine and its metabolites on CYP2E1-mediated toxicity in pyrazole-induced rat hepatocytes and HepG2 E47 cells. Wu, D., Cederbaum, A.I. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Protective effects of the thiophosphate amifostine (WR 2721) and a lazaroid (U83836E) on lipid peroxidation in endothelial cells during hypoxia/reoxygenation. Mertsch, K., Grune, T., Kunstmann, S., Wiesner, B., Ladhoff, A.M., Siems, W.G., Haseloff, R.F., Blasig, I.E. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Enhancement in antioxidant-based hepatoprotective activity of Trolox by its conjugation to lactosylphenylpyranoside. Wu, T.W., Pristupa, Z.B., Zeng, L.H., Au, J.X., Wu, J., Sugiyama, H., Carey, D. Hepatology (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Liver glutathione depletion induced by bromobenzene, iodobenzene, and diethylmaleate poisoning and its relation to lipid peroxidation and necrosis. Casini, A.F., Pompella, A., Comporti, M. Am. J. Pathol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. Vitamin E analog modulates UVB-induced signaling pathway activation and enhances cell survival. Peus, D., Meves, A., Pott, M., Beyerle, A., Pittelkow, M.R. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Ascorbate-dependent recycling of the vitamin E homologue Trolox by dihydrolipoate and glutathione in murine skin homogenates. Guo, Q., Packer, L. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Trolox and 17beta-estradiol protect against amyloid beta-peptide neurotoxicity by a mechanism that involves modulation of the Wnt signaling pathway. Quintanilla, R.A., Muñoz, F.J., Metcalfe, M.J., Hitschfeld, M., Olivares, G., Godoy, J.A., Inestrosa, N.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. alpha-Tocopherol and trolox block the early intracellular events (TBARS and calcium rises) elicited by oxidized low density lipoproteins in cultured endothelial cells. Mabile, L., Fitoussi, G., Periquet, B., Schmitt, A., Salvayre, R., Nègre-Salvayre, A. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Mitochondrial electron transport chain activity is not involved in ultraviolet A (UVA)-induced cell death. Schauen, M., Hornig-Do, H.T., Schomberg, S., Herrmann, G., Wiesner, R.J. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2007) [Pubmed]
  19. Membrane peroxidation: inhibiting effects of water-soluble antioxidants on phospholipids of different charge types. Barclay, L.R., Vinqvist, M.R. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. N-Acetyl-L-cysteine enhances apoptosis through inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB in hypoxic murine embryonic fibroblasts. Qanungo, S., Wang, M., Nieminen, A.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Role of high glucose-induced nuclear factor-kappaB activation in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression by mesangial cells. Ha, H., Yu, M.R., Choi, Y.J., Kitamura, M., Lee, H.B. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Age differences in sensitivity to H2O2- or NO-induced reductions in K(+)-evoked dopamine release from superfused striatal slices: reversals by PBN or Trolox. Joseph, J.A., Villalobos-Molina, R., Denisova, N., Erat, S., Cutler, R., Strain, J. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Protection of vitamin E, selenium, trolox C, ascorbic acid palmitate, acetylcysteine, coenzyme Q0, coenzyme Q10, beta-carotene, canthaxanthin, and (+)-catechin against oxidative damage to rat blood and tissues in vivo. Chen, H., Tappel, A.L. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Acetoacetate activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in primary cultured rat hepatocytes: role of oxidative stress. Abdelmegeed, M.A., Kim, S.K., Woodcroft, K.J., Novak, R.F. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Removal of glutathione produces apoptosis and necrosis in HepG2 cells overexpressing CYP2E1. Wu, D., Cederbaum, A.I. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Involvement of ERK AND p38 MAP kinase in AAPH-induced COX-2 expression in HaCaT cells. Cui, Y., Kim, D.S., Park, S.H., Yoon, J.A., Kim, S.K., Kwon, S.B., Park, K.C. Chem. Phys. Lipids (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Attenuation of caspase-3-dependent apoptosis by Trolox post-treatment of X-irradiated MOLT-4 cells. Inanami, O., Takahashi, K., Kuwabara, M. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Trolox prevents osteoclastogenesis by suppressing RANKL expression and signaling. Lee, J.H., Kim, H.N., Yang, D., Jung, K., Kim, H.M., Kim, H.H., Ha, H., Lee, Z.H. J. Biol. Chem. (2009) [Pubmed]
  29. Effect of a water-soluble vitamin E analog, trolox C, on retinal vascular development in an animal model of retinopathy of prematurity. Penn, J.S., Tolman, B.L., Bullard, L.E. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Trolox attenuates mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction and proteolysis. Betters, J.L., Criswell, D.S., Shanely, R.A., Van Gammeren, D., Falk, D., Deruisseau, K.C., Deering, M., Yimlamai, T., Powers, S.K. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Trolox C, a lipid-soluble membrane protective agent, attenuates myocardial injury from ischemia and reperfusion. Rubinstein, J.D., Lesnefsky, E.J., Byler, R.M., Fennessey, P.V., Horwitz, L.D. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
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