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Chemical Compound Review

NITROFEN     2,4-dichloro-1-(4- nitrophenoxy)benzene

Synonyms: Niclofen, Nitrafen, Nitrahen, Trizilin, Mezotox, ...
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Gene context of Niclofen

  • In order to further examine these issues and to test the applicability of experimentally produced CDDs to human disease, we administered nitrofen (2,4-dichlorophenyl-p-nitrophenyl ether), an herbicide known to produce diaphragmatic defects in rodents, to time-mated CD1 mice by gavage feeding on gestational days 8 and 9 [11].


  1. Surfactant protein A is decreased in a rat model of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Mysore, M.R., Margraf, L.R., Jaramillo, M.A., Breed, D.R., Chau, V.L., Arévalo, M., Moya, F.R. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Chemical impurity as the possible cause of nitrofen mutagenicity. Seiler, J.P. Carcinogenesis (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Strain differences in response of Sprague-Dawley and Long Evans Hooded rats to the teratogen nitrofen. Kang, Y.J., Zolna, L., Manson, J.M. Teratology (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Experimental ureterohydronephrosis in fetal rats. Qi, B., Diez-Pardo, J.A., Rodriguez, J.I., Tovar, J.A. J. Pediatr. Surg. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Kidney morphology and function in the young of rats malnourished and exposed to nitrofen during pregnancy. Chase-Deesing, C., Kavlock, R.J., Zeman, F.J. Journal of toxicology and environmental health. (1986) [Pubmed]
  6. Prenatal exposure to the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenyl-p-nitrophenyl ether destroys the rodent Harderian gland. Gray, L.E., Kavlock, R.J., Chernoff, N., Ferrell, J., McLamb, J., Ostby, J. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  7. Teratogenicity of nitrofen (2,4-dichloro-4'-nitrodiphenyl ether) and its effects on thyroid function in the rat. Manson, J.M., Brown, T., Baldwin, D.M. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Postnatal developmental alterations following prenatal exposure to the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenyl-p-nitrophenyl ether: a dose response evaluation in the mouse. Gray, L.E., Kavlock, R.J., Chernoff, N., Ostby, J., Ferrell, J. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  9. Nitrofen-induced congenital malformations of the heart and great vessels in rats: an animal model. Kim, W.G., Suh, J.W., Chi, J.G. J. Pediatr. Surg. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. The effects on rat pups when nitrofen (4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)nitrobenzene) was applied dermally to the dam during organogenesis. Costlow, R.D., Hirsekorn, J.M., Stiratelli, R.G., O'Hara, G.P., Black, D.L., Kane, W.W., Burke, S.S., Smith, J.M., Hayes, A.W. Toxicology (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. Nitrofen-induced congenital diaphragmatic defects in CD1 mice. Wickman, D.S., Siebert, J.R., Benjamin, D.R. Teratology (1993) [Pubmed]
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