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Gene Review

Elk4  -  ELK4, member of ETS oncogene family

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 2310011G17Rik, A130026I01Rik, BB162516, ETS domain-containing protein Elk-4, SAP-1, ...
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High impact information on Elk4

  • Net has sequence similarity in three regions with the ets factors Elk1 and SAP1, which have been implicated in the serum response of the fos promoter [1].
  • Analysis of T cell receptor transgenes showed that positive selection was reduced by 80-90% in SAP-1-deficient mice; heterozygous mice showed a moderate defect [2].
  • The transcription factors Elk-1 and SAP-1 bind together with serum response factor to the serum response element present in the c-fos promoter and mediate increased gene expression [3].
  • The factors binding to the serum response elements of the Egr1 promoter form a ternary complex (TC) consisting of serum response factor and either Elk-1 or serum response factor accessory protein-1a [4].
  • Misexpression of PEP1 (SAP1) had no effect on the virulence of white-phase cells in a systemic mouse model, in which white-phase cells were already more virulent than opaque-phase cells [5].

Biological context of Elk4

  • The ternary complex factors (TCFs) Net, Elk-1 and Sap-1 regulate immediate early genes through serum response elements (SREs) in vitro, but, surprisingly, their in vivo roles are unknown [6].
  • Elk-1 and Sap-1 were the only Ets-related transcription factors tested as chimeras with LexA DNA-binding domain that were able to mediate insulin-increased expression of a LexA-CAT reporter plasmid [7].
  • Net, Elk1, and Sap1 are conserved and map to homologous regions of the mouse and human chromosomes [8].
  • These results firmly establish for the first time that Net, Elk1, and Sap1 are distinct gene products with different chromosomal localizations in both the mouse and the human genomes [8].
  • A misexpression strategy has been used to investigate the role of the opaque-phase-specific gene PEP1 (SAP1), which encodes a secreted aspartyl proteinase, in the expression of the unique opaque-phase phenotype and phase-specific virulence in two animal models [5].

Anatomical context of Elk4


  1. Net, a new ets transcription factor that is activated by Ras. Giovane, A., Pintzas, A., Maira, S.M., Sobieszczuk, P., Wasylyk, B. Genes Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Ternary complex factor SAP-1 is required for Erk-mediated thymocyte positive selection. Costello, P.S., Nicolas, R.H., Watanabe, Y., Rosewell, I., Treisman, R. Nat. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Role of p38 and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases in the activation of ternary complex factors. Whitmarsh, A.J., Yang, S.H., Su, M.S., Sharrocks, A.D., Davis, R.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Induction of the early growth response gene 1 promoter by TCR agonists and partial agonists: ligand potency is related to sustained phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase substrates. Xi, H., Kersh, G.J. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Misexpression of the opaque-phase-specific gene PEP1 (SAP1) in the white phase of Candida albicans confers increased virulence in a mouse model of cutaneous infection. Kvaal, C., Lachke, S.A., Srikantha, T., Daniels, K., McCoy, J., Soll, D.R. Infect. Immun. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Net-targeted mutant mice develop a vascular phenotype and up-regulate egr-1. Ayadi, A., Zheng, H., Sobieszczuk, P., Buchwalter, G., Moerman, P., Alitalo, K., Wasylyk, B. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Elk-1, C/EBPalpha, and Pit-1 confer an insulin-responsive phenotype on prolactin promoter expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells and define the factors required for insulin-increased transcription. Jacob, K.K., Stanley, F.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Locations of the ets subfamily members net, elk1, and sap1 (ELK3, ELK1, and ELK4) on three homologous regions of the mouse and human genomes. Giovane, A., Sobieszczuk, P., Mignon, C., Mattei, M.G., Wasylyk, B. Genomics (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Net-b, a Ras-insensitive factor that forms ternary complexes with serum response factor on the serum response element of the fos promoter. Giovane, A., Sobieszczuk, P., Ayadi, A., Maira, S.M., Wasylyk, B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
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