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Gene Review

AGR3  -  anterior gradient 3

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: AG-3, AG3, Anterior gradient protein 3 homolog, BCMP11, Breast cancer membrane protein 11, ...
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Disease relevance of AGR3

  • Evaluation of AGR2 and AGR3 as candidate genes for inflammatory bowel disease [1].
  • Diversity of the protein disulfide isomerase family: identification of breast tumor induced Hag2 and Hag3 as novel members of the protein family [2].
  • AG3 (AYSSGAPPMPPF) is an inorganic-binding peptide that specifically and selectively binds to silver demonstrated by phage display library according to the Stone group [3].

High impact information on AGR3

  • Four monoclonal antibodies (BH11, T2/30, AG3, and BC3) were produced against different epithelial components of the normal thymus [4].
  • All 12 isolates were stapylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IVc, had an agr3 allele, and shared a common toxin gene profile (sea-see, seg-sej, eta, etb, and tst negative but etd positive) [5].
  • Tumour expression of both genes correlated with OR (hAG2, P=0.0002; hAG-3, P=0.0012), and inversely correlated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) (P=0.003) [6].
  • Although the roles of hAG-2 and hAG-3 in mammalian cells are unknown, both proteins share a high degree of protein sequence homology and lie adjacent to one another on chromosome 7p21. hAG-2 mRNA expression has previously been demonstrated in oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive cell lines [6].
  • Substitution of the oxidation-sensitive thiol function of mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) by a hydroxyl group yields a tetraligand (hydroxyacetyltriglycine or HAG3) which is almost insensitive to oxidation and has the advantage over MAG3 that it can be stored safely without protection of the alcohol function [7].

Biological context of AGR3

  • The genes encoding for the human homologues AGR2 and AGR3 are localized on chromosome 7p21 [1].
  • In our experiment, synthesized silver-binding peptide AG3 was immobilized on the surface of protonated poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film which was prepared for biomimetic synthesis silver particles in vitro [3].
  • The biosorption of Acid red 88 (AR88), Acid green 3 (AG3) and Acid orange 7 (AO7) by deactivated fresh water macro alga Azolla filiculoides was investigated in batch mode [8].

Associations of AGR3 with chemical compounds

  • The adsorption capacity was pH dependent with a maximum value of 109.0 mg/g at pH 7 for AR88, 133.5 mg/g at pH 3 for AG3 and 109.6 mg/g at pH 3 for AO7, respectively, was obtained [8].

Other interactions of AGR3

  • hAG-2 and hAG-3 are recently discovered human homologues of the secreted Xenopus laevis proteins XAG-1/2 (AGR-1/2) that are expressed in the cement gland, an ectodermal organ in the head associated with anteroposterior fate determination during early development [6].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of AGR3

  • In this study, we have used real-time quantitative RT - PCR analysis and immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays to demonstrate concordant expression of hAG-2 and hAG-3 mRNA and protein in breast tumour tissues [6].


  1. Evaluation of AGR2 and AGR3 as candidate genes for inflammatory bowel disease. Zheng, W., Rosenstiel, P., Huse, K., Sina, C., Valentonyte, R., Mah, N., Zeitlmann, L., Grosse, J., Ruf, N., Nürnberg, P., Costello, C.M., Onnie, C., Mathew, C., Platzer, M., Schreiber, S., Hampe, J. Genes Immun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Diversity of the protein disulfide isomerase family: identification of breast tumor induced Hag2 and Hag3 as novel members of the protein family. Persson, S., Rosenquist, M., Knoblach, B., Khosravi-Far, R., Sommarin, M., Michalak, M. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Biomimetic synthesis silver crystallite by peptide AYSSGAPPMPPF immobilized on PET film in vitro. Zhang, X., Chen, J., Yang, P., Yang, W. J. Inorg. Biochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Cortical thymocyte differentiation in thymomas: an immunohistologic analysis of the pathologic microenvironment. Takacs, L., Savino, W., Monostori, E., Ando, I., Bach, J.F., Dardenne, M. J. Immunol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Staphylococcus aureus isolates carrying Panton-Valentine leucocidin genes in England and Wales: frequency, characterization, and association with clinical disease. Holmes, A., Ganner, M., McGuane, S., Pitt, T.L., Cookson, B.D., Kearns, A.M. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. hAG-2 and hAG-3, human homologues of genes involved in differentiation, are associated with oestrogen receptor-positive breast tumours and interact with metastasis gene C4.4a and dystroglycan. Fletcher, G.C., Patel, S., Tyson, K., Adam, P.J., Schenker, M., Loader, J.A., Daviet, L., Legrain, P., Parekh, R., Harris, A.L., Terrett, J.A. Br. J. Cancer (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Characteristics and biological behaviour of 99mTc-labelled hydroxyacetyltriglycine, a potential alternative to 99mTc-MAG3. Vanbilloen, H.P., Dezutter, N.A., Cleynhens, B.J., Verbruggen, A.M. European journal of nuclear medicine. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Batch and column studies on biosorption of acid dyes on fresh water macro alga Azolla filiculoides. Padmesh, T.V., Vijayaraghavan, K., Sekaran, G., Velan, M. Journal of hazardous materials. (2005) [Pubmed]
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