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MeSH Review

Fresh Water

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Disease relevance of Fresh Water


High impact information on Fresh Water

  • The event was triggered by a persistent northwesterly wind that transported large amounts of buoyant cold and fresh water into the northern North Atlantic Ocean [6].
  • In fresh water, concentrations of taurine in body tissues decrease; in salt water, they increase [7].
  • Chloride concentrations are increasing at a rate that threatens the availability of fresh water in the northeastern United States. Increases in roadways and deicer use are now salinizing fresh waters, degrading habitat for aquatic organisms, and impacting large supplies of drinking water for humans throughout the region [8].
  • After transfer of eels from fresh water to seawater, mRNA expression of guanylin and uroguanylin did not change for 3 h, but it increased after 24 h [9].
  • A new glycosphingolipid, provisionally named Lipid III in our previous work (Hori, T., Sugita, M., Kanbayashi, J., and Itasaka, O. (1977) J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 81, 107-114), was extracted and purified from the spermatozoa of the fresh water bivalve, Hyriopsis schlegelii [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Fresh Water


Biological context of Fresh Water


Anatomical context of Fresh Water


Associations of Fresh Water with chemical compounds

  • To determine if such infections may be considered opportunistic, groups of laboratory mice were pretreated with either methylprednisolone or tetracycline and inoculated intranasally with 1.075 times 10(4) Acanthamoeba castellanii isolated from a natural fresh water well [25].
  • Early consideration of this unusual diagnosis, based on historical factors (recent contact with warm fresh water), coupled with prompt aggressive therapy with high-dose amphotericin B is emphasized in achieving a successful outcome [26].
  • Here, we demonstrate that this method is inappropriate for measuring CLS in oxic freshwaters in which sulfate concentrations are large relative to the dissolved metal sulfides [27].
  • Thus, storage in fresh water appears to have inhibited the acute Lp response to atrial peptide observed in vessels from the FA or DS animals [28].
  • Growth of phenol-mineralizing microorganisms in fresh water [29].

Gene context of Fresh Water

  • PRL cells in juvenile fish kept in fresh water had big, round-nuclei, and were heavily labeled, indicating that they were active [30].
  • Fes/FER_SR shows next to best homology with the Abl family of non-receptor PTKs, while Src-related PTKs from the fresh-water sponge Spongilla lacustris are related only distantly to Fes/FER_SR [31].
  • Enlarged flaA genes, contributing three further polymorphisms, were detected in strains isolated from fresh water [32].
  • The enzymes beta-D-galactosidase (GALase) and beta-D-glucuronidase (GLUase) were shown to be already induced in freshwaters when tested, respectively, with the inducers isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside and methyl-beta-D-glucuronide [33].
  • Plasma GH levels of the mature chum salmon caught in Otsuchi Bay were highly variable, especially in females (20.2 +/- 8.2 ng/ml) as compared with males (16.0 +/- 1.1 ng/ml), and there was no significant change after transfer to fresh water [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Fresh Water


  1. STK, the src homologue, is responsible for the initial commitment to develop head structures in Hydra. Cardenas, M.M., Salgado, L.M. Dev. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. The ineffectiveness of steroid therapy for treatment of fresh-water near-drowning. Calderwood, H.W., Modell, J.H., Ruiz, B.C. Anesthesiology (1975) [Pubmed]
  3. Simultaneous detection and differentiation of Escherichia coli populations from environmental freshwaters by means of sequence variations in a fragment of the beta-D-glucuronidase gene. Farnleitner, A.H., Kreuzinger, N., Kavka, G.G., Grillenberger, S., Rath, J., Mach, R.L. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Occurrence of butyltin compounds in the waters of selected lakes, rivers and coastal environments from China. Jiang, G.B., Zhou, Q.F., Liu, J.Y., Wu, D.J. Environ. Pollut. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. A marine fish diet reduces spontaneous lymphoma in outbred Swiss-Webster mice. Somers, C.M., Kwiecien, J.M., Quinn, J.S. Leuk. Lymphoma (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. An abrupt climate event in a coupled ocean-atmosphere simulation without external forcing. Hall, A., Stouffer, R.J. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Taurine: possible role in osmotic regulation of mammalian heart. Thurston, J.H., Hauhart, R.E., Naccarato, E.F. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  8. Increased salinization of fresh water in the northeastern United States. Kaushal, S.S., Groffman, P.M., Likens, G.E., Belt, K.T., Stack, W.P., Kelly, V.R., Band, L.E., Fisher, G.T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. A novel guanylin family (guanylin, uroguanylin, and renoguanylin) in eels: possible osmoregulatory hormones in intestine and kidney. Yuge, S., Inoue, K., Hyodo, S., Takei, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Characterization of a novel glycosphingolipid, ceramide nonasaccharide, isolated from spermatozoa of the fresh water bivalve, Hyriopsis schlegelii. Hori, T., Sugita, M., Ando, S., Kuwahara, M., Kumauchi, K., Sugie, E., Itasaka, O. J. Biol. Chem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  11. Serial pulmonary function studies in survivors of near drowning. Jenkinson, S.G., George, R.B. Chest (1980) [Pubmed]
  12. Acute toxicity of chlorophenols to earthworms using a simple paper contact method and comparison with toxicities to fresh water organisms. Miyazaki, A., Amano, T., Saito, H., Nakano, Y. Chemosphere (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Antimutagenic properties of fresh-water blue-green algae. Lahitová, N., Doupovcová, M., Zvonár, J., Chandoga, J., Hocman, G. Folia Microbiol. (Praha) (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Toxicity of Temik (aldicarb) for a fresh water teleost, Barbus conchonius Hamilton. Pant, S.C., Kumar, S. Experientia (1981) [Pubmed]
  15. Cefotaxime-sensitive Aeromonas hydrophila infection in a revascularized foot. Lineaweaver, W.C., Follansbee, S., Hing, D.N. Annals of plastic surgery. (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Incorporation of phenol carbon at trace concentrations by phenol-mineralizing microorganisms in fresh water. Chesney, R.H., Sollitti, P., Rubin, H.E. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. Kinetic speciation of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) in model solutions and freshwaters: lability and the d electron configuration. Sekaly, A.L., Murimboh, J., Hassan, N.M., Mandal, R., Younes, M.E., Chakrabarti, C.L., Back, M.H., Grégoire, D.C. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Mitochondria-rich (chloride) cells in the gill epithelia from four species of stenohaline fresh water teleosts. Kikuchi, S. Cell Tissue Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  19. Intensive care after fresh water immersion accidents in children. Pfenninger, J., Sutter, M. Anaesthesia. (1982) [Pubmed]
  20. Fluoride-induced changes in carbohydrate metabolism in the tissues of fresh water crab Barytelphusa querini. Reddy, S.L., Gopal, N.B., Reddy, A.N., Rao, J.V. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Chloride cells and osmoregulation. Zadunaisky, J.A. Kidney Int. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. In vitro effects of environmental salinity and cortisol on chloride cell differentiation in embryos of Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, measured using a newly developed 'yolk-ball' incubation system. Shiraishi, K., Hiroi, J., Kaneko, T., Matsuda, M., Hirano, T., Mori, T. J. Exp. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. The ultrastructure of prolactin cells in the annual cyprinodont Cynolebias whitei during its life cycle. A morphometric study in freshwater- and saltwater-reared fish. Ruijter, J.M., Creuwels, L.A. Cell Tissue Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Evaluation of hematotoxic effects of two commonly used fertilizers, diammonium phosphate and urea, on fish Clarias batrachus. Trivedi, S.P., Singh, P., Sethi, N., Singh, R.K. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. Experimental Acanthamoeba infections in mice pretreated with methylprednisolone or tetracycline. Markowitz, S.M., Sobieski, T., Martinez, A.J., Duma, R.J. Am. J. Pathol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  26. Successful treatment of primary amebic meningoencephalitis. Brown, R.L. Arch. Intern. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  27. Unsuitability of Cr(II) reduction for the measurement of sulfides in oxic water samples. Mylon, S.E., Hu, H., Benoit, G. Anal. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Volume status influences atrial peptide-induced water conductivity changes in leopard frog mesenteric capillaries. Meyer, D.J., Huxley, V.H., McKay, M.K. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. Growth of phenol-mineralizing microorganisms in fresh water. Rubin, H.E., Schmidt, S. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  30. Growth hormone- and prolactin-producing cells in the pituitary gland of striped bass (Morone saxatilis): immunocytochemical characterization at different life stages. Huang, L., Specker, J.L. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of a cDNA encoding the Fes/FER related, non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase in the marine sponge sycon raphanus. Cetkovic, H., Müller, I.M., Müller, W.E., Gamulin, V. Gene (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. High-resolution genotyping of Campylobacter coli identifies clones of epidemiologic and evolutionary significance. Stanley, J., Linton, D., Sutherland, K., Jones, C., Owen, R.J. J. Infect. Dis. (1995) [Pubmed]
  33. Use of enzymatic methods for rapid enumeration of coliforms in freshwaters. George, I., Petit, M., Servais, P. J. Appl. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  34. Development and validation of a salmon growth hormone radioimmunoassay. Bolton, J.P., Takahashi, A., Kawauchi, H., Kubota, J., Hirano, T. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  35. Tissue responses to nacreous implants in rat femur: an in situ hybridization and histochemical study. Liao, H., Mutvei, H., Hammarström, L., Wurtz, T., Li, J. Biomaterials (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. Effects of environmental salinity on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in the gills and rectal gland of a euryhaline elasmobranch (Dasyatis sabina). Piermarini, P.M., Evans, D.H. J. Exp. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  37. Cholinesterase activity and effects of its inhibition by neurotoxic drugs in Dictyostelium discoideum. Falugi, C., Amaroli, A., Evangelisti, V., Viarengo, A., Corrado, M.U. Chemosphere (2002) [Pubmed]
  38. Purification and catalytic properties of glutathione transferase from the hepatopancreas of crayfish macrobrachium vollenhovenii (herklots). Adewale, I.O., Afolayan, A. J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  39. Radioimmunoassay for arginine-vasotocin (AVT) in serum of Pekin ducks: AVT concentrations after adaptation to fresh water and salt water. Möhring, J., Schoun, J., Simon-Oppermann, C., Simon, E. Pflugers Arch. (1980) [Pubmed]
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