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Gene Review

AGR2  -  anterior gradient 2

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: AG-2, AG2, Anterior gradient protein 2 homolog, GOB-4, HAG-2, ...
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Disease relevance of AGR2


High impact information on AGR2

  • These experiments are the first to link mechanistically the developmental gene product, AGR2, with metastasis in vivo [3].
  • When an expression vector for AGR2 cDNA was introduced into benign nonmetastatic rat mammary tumor cells, and three separate clones and two pools of cells were transferred to the mammary glands of syngeneic hosts, there were no consistent differences in the mean latent periods of tumor formation [3].
  • In contrast, PPARgamma-selective targets included genes linked to growth regulatory pathways (regenerating gene IA), colon epithelial cell maturation (GOB-4 and keratin 20), and immune modulation (neutrophil-gelatinase-associated lipocalin) [4].
  • RESULTS: Immunohistochemical detection of AGR2 was statistically significantly associated with positive estrogen receptor status and lower tumor grade [5].
  • AGR2 was over-expressed in 89% of prostate carcinomas, but did not have prognostic significance [6].

Biological context of AGR2

  • Localization of the human anterior gradient-2 gene (AGR2) to chromosome band 7p21.3 by radiation hybrid mapping and fluorescencein situ hybridisation [7].
  • Although the roles of hAG-2 and hAG-3 in mammalian cells are unknown, both proteins share a high degree of protein sequence homology and lie adjacent to one another on chromosome 7p21. hAG-2 mRNA expression has previously been demonstrated in oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive cell lines [8].
  • Sequence analysis of clones obtained from a human breast adenocarcinoma MCF7 cDNA library suggests that at least three mRNA transcripts, differing in their 3'-untranslated regions, are transcribed from the hAG-2 gene [9].
  • Coexpression of hAG-2 with ER suggests that hAG-2 may be involved in the tumor biology specific to the well-differentiated phenotype of hormonally-responsive breast cancers [9].
  • Glycoproteins (GPs) in cyst fluid purified from the 2 genotypes of T. solium were characterized and compared with the recombinant chimeric T. solium-Ag1V1/Ag2 protein (Rec-Ag1V1/Ag2) as serodiagnostic antigens [10].

Anatomical context of AGR2


Associations of AGR2 with chemical compounds

  • The androgen induction was time- and dose-dependent, with more than a 10-fold increase in the level of AGR2 mRNA after 48 hr of treatment with 10(-9) M R1881 [1].
  • Isolated mutants were further selected in 6-thioguanine-containing medium, and two mutant clones were finally obtained (AG1 and AG2) [12].
  • Two Atlantic salmon AG-2 mRNA transcripts, designated asAG-2/1 and asAG-2/2, were cloned, sequenced, and shown to be predominantly expressed in the gill, intestine, and brain of a healthy fish [13].

Other interactions of AGR2

  • Therefore, the androgen-induced secretory protein AGR2 may serve as a potential therapeutic target and/or molecular marker for prostate cancer [1].
  • hAG-2 and hAG-3 are recently discovered human homologues of the secreted Xenopus laevis proteins XAG-1/2 (AGR-1/2) that are expressed in the cement gland, an ectodermal organ in the head associated with anteroposterior fate determination during early development [8].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of AGR2


  1. AGR2, an androgen-inducible secretory protein overexpressed in prostate cancer. Zhang, J.S., Gong, A., Cheville, J.C., Smith, D.I., Young, C.Y. Genes Chromosomes Cancer (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Evaluation of AGR2 and AGR3 as candidate genes for inflammatory bowel disease. Zheng, W., Rosenstiel, P., Huse, K., Sina, C., Valentonyte, R., Mah, N., Zeitlmann, L., Grosse, J., Ruf, N., Nürnberg, P., Costello, C.M., Onnie, C., Mathew, C., Platzer, M., Schreiber, S., Hampe, J. Genes Immun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Human homologue of cement gland protein, a novel metastasis inducer associated with breast carcinomas. Liu, D., Rudland, P.S., Sibson, D.R., Platt-Higgins, A., Barraclough, R. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Target genes of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in colorectal cancer cells. Gupta, R.A., Brockman, J.A., Sarraf, P., Willson, T.M., DuBois, R.N. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Prognostic relevance of AGR2 expression in breast cancer. Fritzsche, F.R., Dahl, E., Pahl, S., Burkhardt, M., Luo, J., Mayordomo, E., Gansukh, T., Dankof, A., Knuechel, R., Denkert, C., Winzer, K.J., Dietel, M., Kristiansen, G. Clin. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Expression profiling of microdissected matched prostate cancer samples reveals CD166/MEMD and CD24 as new prognostic markers for patient survival. Kristiansen, G., Pilarsky, C., Wissmann, C., Kaiser, S., Bruemmendorf, T., Roepcke, S., Dahl, E., Hinzmann, B., Specht, T., Pervan, J., Stephan, C., Loening, S., Dietel, M., Rosenthal, A. J. Pathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Localization of the human anterior gradient-2 gene (AGR2) to chromosome band 7p21.3 by radiation hybrid mapping and fluorescencein situ hybridisation. Petek, E., Windpassinger, C., Egger, H., Kroisel, P.M., Wagner, K. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. hAG-2 and hAG-3, human homologues of genes involved in differentiation, are associated with oestrogen receptor-positive breast tumours and interact with metastasis gene C4.4a and dystroglycan. Fletcher, G.C., Patel, S., Tyson, K., Adam, P.J., Schenker, M., Loader, J.A., Daviet, L., Legrain, P., Parekh, R., Harris, A.L., Terrett, J.A. Br. J. Cancer (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. hAG-2, the human homologue of the Xenopus laevis cement gland gene XAG-2, is coexpressed with estrogen receptor in breast cancer cell lines. Thompson, D.A., Weigel, R.J. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Evaluation of Purified Taenia solium Glycoproteins and Recombinant Antigens in the Serologic Detection of Human and Swine Cysticercosis. Sato, M.O., Sako, Y., Nakao, M., Yamasaki, H., Nakaya, K., Ito, A. J. Infect. Dis. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Coccidioides immitis antigen 2: analysis of gene and protein. Zhu, Y., Yang, C., Magee, D.M., Cox, R.A. Gene (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Establishment of 8-azaguanine-resistant mutants from rat thyroid cell line FRTL-5. Sugawa, H., Mori, T., Imura, H. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Transcriptome profiling the gills of amoebic gill disease (AGD)-affected Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): a role for tumor suppressor p53 in AGD pathogenesis? Morrison, R.N., Cooper, G.A., Koop, B.F., Rise, M.L., Bridle, A.R., Adams, M.B., Nowak, B.F. Physiol. Genomics (2006) [Pubmed]
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