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Gene Review

Ttl  -  tubulin tyrosine ligase

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: TTL, Tubulin--tyrosine ligase
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Disease relevance of Ttl

  • RESULTS: No catch up in body weight (BW; p < .05), total length (TTL; p < .001), or tail length (TL; females, p < .02; males, p < .001) was observed in the adult female and male FR rats [1].

High impact information on Ttl

  • The sequence of tubulin-tyrosine ligase (TTL), the enzyme catalyzing the ATP-dependent posttranslational addition of a tyrosine to the carboxyterminal end of detyrosinated alpha-tubulin, has been determined [2].
  • TTL contains a potential serine phosphorylation site for cAMP-dependent protein kinase (RKAS at positions 73 to 76) [2].
  • A post-translational modification of tubulin with potential regulatory significance has been revealed by the discovery of an enzyme (tubulin-tyrosine ligase) in brain extracts which can add a tyrosine residue to the alpha chain, apparently through peptide bond linkage to a C-terminal glutamate [3].
  • The release of the incorporated amino acid was measured by using tubulinyl-tyrosine carboxypeptidase, carboxypeptidase A, and tubulin-tyrosine ligase [4].
  • Cloning of rat olfactory bulb tubulin tyrosine ligase cDNA: a dominant negative mutant and an antisense cDNA increase the proliferation rate of cells in culture [5].

Biological context of Ttl

  • Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of rat TTL cDNA with those of bovine and pig showed approximately 90% of identity [5].
  • These results support the hypothesis that TTL may play a role in the regulation of the cell cycle in living cells [5].
  • Transient transfection of CHO-K1 cells with a dominant negative mutant of TTL that contains the binding site to the substrate (tubulin) but not the catalytic domain, significantly decreased the endogenous TTL activity as determined in vitro [5].

Anatomical context of Ttl


  1. Long-term effects of early postnatal food restriction on growth hormone secretion in rats. Houdijk, M.E., Engelbregt, M.T., Popp-Snijders, C., Delemarre van der Waal, H.A. JPEN. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Characterization of the tubulin-tyrosine ligase. Ersfeld, K., Wehland, J., Plessmann, U., Dodemont, H., Gerke, V., Weber, K. J. Cell Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Modification of tubulin by tyrosylation in cells and extracts and its effect on assembly in vitro. Raybin, D., Flavin, M. J. Cell Biol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  4. Enzymatic detyrosination of tubulin tyrosinated in rat brain slices and extracts. Barra, H.S., Argaraña, C.E., Caputto, R. J. Neurochem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Cloning of rat olfactory bulb tubulin tyrosine ligase cDNA: a dominant negative mutant and an antisense cDNA increase the proliferation rate of cells in culture. Mas, C.R., Arregui, C.O., Filiberti, A., Argaraña, C.E., Barra, H.S. Neurochem. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Tubulin tyrosine ligase: protein and mRNA expression in developing rat skeletal muscle. Arregui, C.O., Mas, C.R., Argaraña, C.E., Barra, H.S. Dev. Growth Differ. (1997) [Pubmed]
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