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TTL  -  tubulin tyrosine ligase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: MGC46235, Tubulin--tyrosine ligase
 
 
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Disease relevance of TTL

  • Subclone 22 lacked almost all of TTL including the gene for IE 118 and induced only the HSV-1 IE 110 [1].
  • Reactions with TTL and KL1 antibodies were generally positive in the stellate cells of the follicular or acanthomatous ameloblastomas [2].
  • Low expression of human tubulin tyrosine ligase and suppressed tubulin tyrosination/detyrosination cycle are associated with impaired neuronal differentiation in neuroblastomas with poor prognosis [3].
 

High impact information on TTL

 

Biological context of TTL

  • Phosphorylation of TTL is predicted to occur in a postulated Mg(++)/-ATP binding fold, leading to inhibition of Mg(++)/ATP binding and TTL mediated catalysis [6].
  • These results suggest that the deregulated tubulin tyrosination/detyrosination cycle caused by decreased expression of hTTL is associated with inhibition of neuronal differentiation and enhancement of cell growth in the primary neuroblastomas with poor outcome [3].
  • To understand the molecular and genetic bases of neuroblastoma, we have generated its cDNA libraries and identified a human ortholog of tubulin tyrosine ligase gene (hTTL/Nbla0660) as a differentially expressed gene at high levels in a favorable subset of the tumor [3].
  • The TTL.6 gene is a member of the tubulin-tyrosine ligase (TTL) family involved in apoptosis and preferentially expressed in the testis [7].
 

Associations of TTL with chemical compounds

 

Regulatory relationships of TTL

 

Other interactions of TTL

  • In this paper, I present evidence suggesting that the cycle itself is under the hierarchical control of reversible phosphorylation and that PKC mediated phosphorylation of TTL inhibits its activity, thereby preventing tubulin tyrosination [6].
  • Keratin expression was studied immunohistochemically in 27 ameloblastomas using polyclonal antibody against wide-spectrum keratins (TTL) and monoclonal antibodies against lower- and higher-molecular-weight keratins (PKK1 and KL1), respectively, to clarify the tumor differentiation [2].
  • Three steps to cancer: how phosphorylation of tubulin, tubulin tyrosine ligase and P-glycoprotein may generate and sustain cancer [11].
 

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TTL

  • The Servo 300 was connected to the TTL with a standard ventilator circuit [12].
  • Methods: The flow signal used to evaluate the Morgan spirometer was produced by a Vent-Aid TTL Training Test Lung. The flow of air from the test lung was directed in series through the Morgan's volume transducer and into the bell of a 9-L Collins water-sealed spirometer [13].
  • In addition, we found frequently truncated PCR products of hTTL transcripts with aberrant splicing in tumors [14].

References

  1. One functional copy of the long terminal repeat gene specifying the immediate-early polypeptide IE 110 suffices for a productive infection of human foetal lung cells by herpes simplex virus. Davison, A.J., Marsden, H.S., Wilkie, N.M. J. Gen. Virol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  2. Immunohistochemical demonstration of keratin in ameloblastoma as an indication of tumor differentiation. Matsuo, A., Ueno, S. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Low expression of human tubulin tyrosine ligase and suppressed tubulin tyrosination/detyrosination cycle are associated with impaired neuronal differentiation in neuroblastomas with poor prognosis. Kato, C., Miyazaki, K., Nakagawa, A., Ohira, M., Nakamura, Y., Ozaki, T., Imai, T., Nakagawara, A. Int. J. Cancer (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Tubulin tyrosine ligase: a shared fold with the glutathione synthetase ADP-forming family. Dideberg, O., Bertrand, J. Trends Biochem. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Tubulin tyrosination is a major factor affecting the recruitment of CAP-Gly proteins at microtubule plus ends. Peris, L., Thery, M., Fauré, J., Saoudi, Y., Lafanechère, L., Chilton, J.K., Gordon-Weeks, P., Galjart, N., Bornens, M., Wordeman, L., Wehland, J., Andrieux, A., Job, D. J. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Phosphorylation of tubulin tyrosine ligase: a potential mechanism for regulation of alpha-tubulin tyrosination. Idriss, H.T. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. The testis-specific apoptosis related gene TTL.6 underwent adaptive evolution in the lineage leading to humans. Chen, X.H., Shi, H., Liu, X.L., Su, B. Gene (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. A diverse superfamily of enzymes with ATP-dependent carboxylate-amine/thiol ligase activity. Galperin, M.Y., Koonin, E.V. Protein Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Restoration of the excitability of squid giant axon by tubulin-tyrosine ligase and microtubule proteins. Matsumoto, G., Kobayashi, T., Sakai, H. J. Biochem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  10. Do TNF-alpha-insensitive cancer cells escape alpha-tubulin nitrotyrosination? Idriss, H.T. Nitric Oxide (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Three steps to cancer: how phosphorylation of tubulin, tubulin tyrosine ligase and P-glycoprotein may generate and sustain cancer. Idriss, H.T. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Performance of heated humidifiers with a heated wire according to ventilatory settings. Nishida, T., Nishimura, M., Fujino, Y., Mashimo, T. Journal of aerosol medicine : the official journal of the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. An evaluation of the P.K. Morgan pocket spirometer. Hess, D., Lehman, E., Troup, J., Smoker, J. Respiratory care. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Cloning and genomic organization of the TTL gene on mouse chromosome 2 and human chromosome 2q13. Erck, C., MacLeod, R.A., Wehland, J. Cytogenet. Genome Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
 
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