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Gene Review

ANKRD2  -  ankyrin repeat domain 2 (stretch...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ARPP, Ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein 2, Skeletal muscle ankyrin repeat protein, hArpp
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Disease relevance of ANKRD2


Psychiatry related information on ANKRD2

  • Psychometric support was found for the revised measure (Abbreviated Acceptability Rating Profile; AARP) in an initial sample of parents (N = 60) who rated child treatments [4].

High impact information on ANKRD2

  • Interestingly, we show that Ankrd2 not only binds the tumor suppressor protein p53 both in vitro and in vivo but also enhances the up-regulation of the p21(WAFI/CIPI) promoter by p53 [1].
  • Ankrd2 co-localizes with the transcriptional co-activator and co-repressor PML in nuclear bodies (NBs) in human myoblasts as detected by confocal immunofluorescence [1].
  • Ankrd2 binding to the ubiquitous transcription factor YB-1 can be demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo; this is not very surprising, since a similar interaction was previously described for CARP [1].
  • The Ankrd2 protein, a link between the sarcomere and the nucleus in skeletal muscle [1].
  • CARP, ankrd-2/Arpp, and DARP, are three members of a conserved gene family, referred to here as MARPs (muscle ankyrin repeat proteins) [5].

Biological context of ANKRD2

  • A human genomic region of 14,300 bp was sequenced revealing a gene organization similar to mouse Ankrd2 with nine exons, four of which encode ankyrin repeats [6].
  • However, in fast muscles of kyphoscoliotic mutant mice, which lack the hypertrophic response to overload but have a slower muscle phenotype than wild-type, Ankrd2 expression was significantly upregulated [7].
  • Using a sensitive proteomics approach (Ciphergen Technology), we observed that Ankrd2 protein was undetectable in soleus after 4 wk of denervation [7].
  • Catalytic hydrogenation of 6 and 9, followed by deisopropylidenation gave ARPP (8) and the alpha-anomer 11, respectively [8].
  • The epidemiology of mental disorder in the elderly: a response to the Senate/AARP report [9].

Associations of ANKRD2 with chemical compounds

  • We recently identified a novel protein, ankyrin repeat protein with PEST and proline-rich region (ARPP), which is homologous to CARP and is preferentially expressed in type 1 skeletal muscle fibers (cf. slow fibers) [2].
  • Compound 14 (MRPP) exhibited enhanced activity against L1210 in vivo, when compared to ARPP (8) [8].

Other interactions of ANKRD2

  • However, the interactions with PML and p53 are unexpected new findings, with interesting implications in the Ankrd2 signaling cascade [1].
  • The expression of MARPs is induced upon injury and hypertrophy (CARP), stretch or denervation (ankrd2/Arpp), and during recovery following starvation (DARP), suggesting that they are involved in muscle stress response pathways [5].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ANKRD2

  • We previously identified Ankyrin repeat-domain protein (Ankrd2) as a novel transcript expressed in fast tibialis anterior muscles after 7 days of passive stretch immobilization in vivo [7].


  1. The Ankrd2 protein, a link between the sarcomere and the nucleus in skeletal muscle. Kojic, S., Medeot, E., Guccione, E., Krmac, H., Zara, I., Martinelli, V., Valle, G., Faulkner, G. J. Mol. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Altered expression of cardiac ankyrin repeat protein and its homologue, ankyrin repeat protein with PEST and proline-rich region, in atrophic muscles in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nakamura, K., Nakada, C., Takeuchi, K., Osaki, M., Shomori, K., Kato, S., Ohama, E., Sato, K., Fukayama, M., Mori, S., Ito, H., Moriyama, M. Pathobiology (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Altered expression of ARPP protein in skeletal muscles of patients with muscular dystrophy, congenital myopathy and spinal muscular atrophy. Nakada, C., Tsukamoto, Y., Oka, A., Nonaka, I., Sato, K., Mori, S., Ito, H., Moriyama, M. Pathobiology (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Assessing treatment acceptance: the Abbreviated Acceptability Rating Profile. Tarnowski, K.J., Simonian, S.J. Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. The muscle ankyrin repeat proteins: CARP, ankrd2/Arpp and DARP as a family of titin filament-based stress response molecules. Miller, M.K., Bang, M.L., Witt, C.C., Labeit, D., Trombitas, C., Watanabe, K., Granzier, H., McElhinny, A.S., Gregorio, C.C., Labeit, S. J. Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Characterization of human skeletal muscle Ankrd2. Pallavicini, A., Kojić, S., Bean, C., Vainzof, M., Salamon, M., Ievolella, C., Bortoletto, G., Pacchioni, B., Zatz, M., Lanfranchi, G., Faulkner, G., Valle, G. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Expression of Ankrd2 in fast and slow muscles and its response to stretch are consistent with a role in slow muscle function. Mckoy, G., Hou, Y., Yang, S.Y., Vega Avelaira, D., Degens, H., Goldspink, G., Coulton, G.R. J. Appl. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Antitumor and antiviral activity of synthetic alpha- and beta-ribonucleosides of certain substituted pyrimido[5,4-d]pyrimidines: a new synthetic strategy for exocyclic aminonucleosides. Sanghvi, Y.S., Larson, S.B., Matsumoto, S.S., Nord, L.D., Smee, D.F., Willis, R.C., Avery, T.L., Robins, R.K., Revankar, G.R. J. Med. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. The epidemiology of mental disorder in the elderly: a response to the Senate/AARP report. Kermis, M.D. The Gerontologist. (1986) [Pubmed]
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