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MeSH Review

Muscular Atrophy, Spinal

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  • Ninety-six children and adolescents with spinal muscular atrophy I-III, aged 6.0-18.11 years, 45 non-affected siblings and 59 healthy, matched controls were examined with one- (CPM/SPM), as well as multi-dimensional intelligence tests (Kaufman-ABC; Wechsler tests) [6].

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Chemical compound and disease context of Muscular Atrophy, Spinal


Biological context of Muscular Atrophy, Spinal


Anatomical context of Muscular Atrophy, Spinal


Gene context of Muscular Atrophy, Spinal


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Muscular Atrophy, Spinal


  1. miRNPs: a novel class of ribonucleoproteins containing numerous microRNAs. Mourelatos, Z., Dostie, J., Paushkin, S., Sharma, A., Charroux, B., Abel, L., Rappsilber, J., Mann, M., Dreyfuss, G. Genes Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Transgenic mice for interleukin 3 develop motor neuron degeneration associated with autoimmune reaction against spinal cord motor neurons. Chavany, C., Vicario-Abejón, C., Miller, G., Jendoubi, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Dilated cardiomyopathy in the nmd mouse: transgenic rescue and QTLs that improve cardiac function and survival. Maddatu, T.P., Garvey, S.M., Schroeder, D.G., Zhang, W., Kim, S.Y., Nicholson, A.I., Davis, C.J., Cox, G.A. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Normal vitamin E status in spinal muscular atrophy. Sokol, R.J., Iannaccone, S.T. Ann. Neurol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  5. Kennedy's disease: a clinicopathologic correlation with mutations in the androgen receptor gene. Amato, A.A., Prior, T.W., Barohn, R.J., Snyder, P., Papp, A., Mendell, J.R. Neurology (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Intelligence and cognitive function in children and adolescents with spinal muscular atrophy. von Gontard, A., Zerres, K., Backes, M., Laufersweiler-Plass, C., Wendland, C., Melchers, P., Lehmkuhl, G., Rudnik-Schöneborn, S. Neuromuscul. Disord. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. A negative element in SMN2 exon 7 inhibits splicing in spinal muscular atrophy. Kashima, T., Manley, J.L. Nat. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Mutations in the gene encoding immunoglobulin mu-binding protein 2 cause spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1. Grohmann, K., Schuelke, M., Diers, A., Hoffmann, K., Lucke, B., Adams, C., Bertini, E., Leonhardt-Horti, H., Muntoni, F., Ouvrier, R., Pfeufer, A., Rossi, R., Van Maldergem, L., Wilmshurst, J.M., Wienker, T.F., Sendtner, M., Rudnik-Schöneborn, S., Zerres, K., Hübner, C. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. The spinal muscular atrophy disease gene product, SMN, and its associated protein SIP1 are in a complex with spliceosomal snRNP proteins. Liu, Q., Fischer, U., Wang, F., Dreyfuss, G. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Symmetrical dimethylarginine methylation is required for the localization of SMN in Cajal bodies and pre-mRNA splicing. Boisvert, F.M., Cote, J., Boulanger, M.C., Cleroux, P., Bachand, F., Autexier, C., Richard, S. J. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Valproic acid increases the SMN2 protein level: a well-known drug as a potential therapy for spinal muscular atrophy. Brichta, L., Hofmann, Y., Hahnen, E., Siebzehnrubl, F.A., Raschke, H., Blumcke, I., Eyupoglu, I.Y., Wirth, B. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Hydroxyurea enhances SMN2 gene expression in spinal muscular atrophy cells. Grzeschik, S.M., Ganta, M., Prior, T.W., Heavlin, W.D., Wang, C.H. Ann. Neurol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. A role for polyproline motifs in the spinal muscular atrophy protein SMN. Profilins bind to and colocalize with smn in nuclear gems. Giesemann, T., Rathke-Hartlieb, S., Rothkegel, M., Bartsch, J.W., Buchmeier, S., Jockusch, B.M., Jockusch, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Disruption of an SF2/ASF-dependent exonic splicing enhancer in SMN2 causes spinal muscular atrophy in the absence of SMN1. Cartegni, L., Krainer, A.R. Nat. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. SMN gene deletions in adult-onset spinal muscular atrophy. Clermont, O., Burlet, P., Lefebvre, S., Bürglen, L., Munnich, A., Melki, J. Lancet (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. The spinal muscular atrophy disease gene product, SMN: A link between snRNP biogenesis and the Cajal (coiled) body. Carvalho, T., Almeida, F., Calapez, A., Lafarga, M., Berciano, M.T., Carmo-Fonseca, M. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Spinal muscular atrophy due to an isolated deletion of exon 8 of the telomeric survival motor neuron gene. Gambardella, A., Mazzei, R., Toscano, A., Annesi, G., Pasqua, A., Annesi, F., Quattrone, F., Oliveri, R.L., Valentino, P., Bono, F., Aguglia, U., Zappia, M., Vita, G., Quattrone, A. Ann. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Determinants of the interaction of the spinal muscular atrophy disease protein SMN with the dimethylarginine-modified box H/ACA small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein GAR1. Whitehead, S.E., Jones, K.W., Zhang, X., Cheng, X., Terns, R.M., Terns, M.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Testosterone reduction prevents phenotypic expression in a transgenic mouse model of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. Katsuno, M., Adachi, H., Kume, A., Li, M., Nakagomi, Y., Niwa, H., Sang, C., Kobayashi, Y., Doyu, M., Sobue, G. Neuron (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. The distribution of SMN protein complex in human fetal tissues and its alteration in spinal muscular atrophy. Burlet, P., Huber, C., Bertrandy, S., Ludosky, M.A., Zwaenepoel, I., Clermont, O., Roume, J., Delezoide, A.L., Cartaud, J., Munnich, A., Lefebvre, S. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Expression of the SMN gene, the spinal muscular atrophy determining gene, in the mammalian central nervous system. Battaglia, G., Princivalle, A., Forti, F., Lizier, C., Zeviani, M. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Reduced survival motor neuron (Smn) gene dose in mice leads to motor neuron degeneration: an animal model for spinal muscular atrophy type III. Jablonka, S., Schrank, B., Kralewski, M., Rossoll, W., Sendtner, M. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Spinal muscular atrophy: molecular pathophysiology. Gendron, N.H., MacKenzie, A.E. Curr. Opin. Neurol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. The exon 2b region of the spinal muscular atrophy protein, SMN, is involved in self-association and SIP1 binding. Young, P.J., Man, N.T., Lorson, C.L., Le, T.T., Androphy, E.J., Burghes, A.H., Morris, G.E. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Characterization of Ighmbp2 in motor neurons and implications for the pathomechanism in a mouse model of human spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 (SMARD1). Grohmann, K., Rossoll, W., Kobsar, I., Holtmann, B., Jablonka, S., Wessig, C., Stoltenburg-Didinger, G., Fischer, U., Hübner, C., Martini, R., Sendtner, M. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. A new mutation in the HEXA gene associated with a spinal muscular atrophy phenotype. Navon, R., Khosravi, R., Korczyn, T., Masson, M., Sonnino, S., Fardeau, M., Eymard, B., Lefevre, M., Turpin, J.C., Rondot, P. Neurology (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. The mouse region syntenic for human spinal muscular atrophy lies within the Lgn1 critical interval and contains multiple copies of Naip exon 5. Scharf, J.M., Damron, D., Frisella, A., Bruno, S., Beggs, A.H., Kunkel, L.M., Dietrich, W.F. Genomics (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. Refined mapping of the GM2 activator protein (GM2A) locus to 5q31.3-q33.1, distal to the spinal muscular atrophy locus. Heng, H.H., Xie, B., Shi, X.M., Tsui, L.C., Mahuran, D.J. Genomics (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Quantitative analyses of SMN1 and SMN2 based on real-time lightCycler PCR: fast and highly reliable carrier testing and prediction of severity of spinal muscular atrophy. Feldkötter, M., Schwarzer, V., Wirth, R., Wienker, T.F., Wirth, B. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Cytochrome c oxidase deficiency due to a novel SCO2 mutation mimics Werdnig-Hoffmann disease. Salviati, L., Sacconi, S., Rasalan, M.M., Kronn, D.F., Braun, A., Canoll, P., Davidson, M., Shanske, S., Bonilla, E., Hays, A.P., Schon, E.A., DiMauro, S. Arch. Neurol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Upper motor neurone and descending tract pathology in bovine spinal muscular atrophy. Troyer, D., Leipold, H.W., Cash, W., Vestweber, J. J. Comp. Pathol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. Prenatal prediction of spinal muscular atrophy in Chinese. Lin, S.P., Chang, J.G., Jong, Y.J., Yang, T.Y., Tsai, C.H., Wang, N.M., Li, H., Hsieh-Li, H.M., Hu, C.J. Prenat. Diagn. (1999) [Pubmed]
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