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Gene Review

ANKRD23  -  ankyrin repeat domain 23

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein 23, DARP, Diabetes-related ankyrin repeat protein, FLJ32449, MARP3, ...
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Disease relevance of ANKRD23

  • The expression of MARPs is induced upon injury and hypertrophy (CARP), stretch or denervation (ankrd2/Arpp), and during recovery following starvation (DARP), suggesting that they are involved in muscle stress response pathways [1].
  • Darpp-32: a novel antiapoptotic gene in upper gastrointestinal carcinomas [2].
  • We show the molecular mechanisms involved in Darpp-32 overexpression and its biological role in upper gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas (UGC) [2].
  • Using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR, Western blots, and staining of tumor tissue arrays, the two DARPP mRNA transcripts and proteins were overexpressed in gastric cancer cells and exhibited abundant protein overexpression in neoplastic but not normal gastric epithelial cells [3].
  • Data obtained suggest that changes in the percentage and concentration of DARP may correlate with certain neurological disorders, showing particularly low levels in Parkinson's disease patients [4].

Psychiatry related information on ANKRD23

  • Role of alcohol use by narcotic addicts as revealed in the DARP research on evaluation of treatment for drug abuse [5].
  • Recent developments in chemotherapy of narcotic addiction. Part VII. Evaluation of present treatment modalities: research with DARP admissions, 1969-1973 [6].
  • The overall evaluation of DARP treatments by former clients was generally favorable and was highest for the DARP therapeutic community [7].

High impact information on ANKRD23

  • The quantitative description of the calcium- and dopamine-dependent regulation of DARPP and MAP2 provides insights into the crosstalk between glutamatergic and dopaminergic signals in striatal MSNs [8].
  • Maximal threonine-phosphorylation of the phosphoprotein DARPP requires optimal concentrations of calcium (about 0.3 microM) and dopamine (above 5 microM) [8].
  • Expression of Darpp-32 and t-Darpp preserved the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and was associated with increased levels of Bcl2 protein [2].
  • The expression of Darpp-32 and t-Darpp is associated with a potent antiapoptotic advantage for cancer cells through a p53-independent mechanism that involves preservation of mitochondrial potential and increased Bcl2 levels [2].
  • When Darpp-32 and t-Darpp were overexpressed in AGS and RKO gastrointestinal cells, up to a 4-fold reduction in the apoptosis rate was observed (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling and Annexin V assays) in response to camptothecin, sodium butyrate, and ceramide [2].

Biological context of ANKRD23


Anatomical context of ANKRD23

  • In cultured fetal rat cardiac myocytes, passive stretch induced differential distribution patterns of CARP and DARP: staining for both proteins was increased in the nucleus and at the I-band region of myofibrils, while DARP staining also increased at intercalated discs [1].
  • When DARP is expressed in CHO cells, [1-(14)C]palmitate uptake is significantly decreased, whereas the palmitate oxidation does not show significant change [9].
  • Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry of DARP-transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and COS-7 cells reveal that DARP is a nuclear protein [9].
  • DARPP immunoreactivity was not observed in any normal oesophageal mucous membranes [11].
  • These results indicate that striatal DARPP-32-immunoreactive neurons are present in the lateral ganglionic eminence in fetuses as soon as 7 weeks postconception [12].

Other interactions of ANKRD23


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ANKRD23

  • We have used gel mobility shift assays to detect proteins that bind to DNA treated in vitro with duocarmycin SA and identified a protein, named duocarmycin-DNA adduct recognizing protein (DARP), which binds with increased affinity to duocarmycin-damaged DNA [14].
  • DARP levels were determined by an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) using monoclonal anti-DARP antibodies [4].
  • The case for drug abuse treatment effectiveness, based on the DARP research program [15].


  1. The muscle ankyrin repeat proteins: CARP, ankrd2/Arpp and DARP as a family of titin filament-based stress response molecules. Miller, M.K., Bang, M.L., Witt, C.C., Labeit, D., Trombitas, C., Watanabe, K., Granzier, H., McElhinny, A.S., Gregorio, C.C., Labeit, S. J. Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Darpp-32: a novel antiapoptotic gene in upper gastrointestinal carcinomas. Belkhiri, A., Zaika, A., Pidkovka, N., Knuutila, S., Moskaluk, C., El-Rifai, W. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Gastric cancers overexpress DARPP-32 and a novel isoform, t-DARPP. El-Rifai, W., Smith, M.F., Li, G., Beckler, A., Carl, V.S., Montgomery, E., Knuutila, S., Moskaluk, C.A., Frierson, H.F., Powell, S.M. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Determination of dopamine-releasing protein (DARP) in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neurological disorders. Verdugo-Diaz, L., Morgado-Valle, C., Solis-Maldonado, G., Drucker-Colin, R. Arch. Med. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Role of alcohol use by narcotic addicts as revealed in the DARP research on evaluation of treatment for drug abuse. Sells, S.B., Simpson, D.D. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Recent developments in chemotherapy of narcotic addiction. Part VII. Evaluation of present treatment modalities: research with DARP admissions, 1969-1973. Sells, S.B., Demaree, R.G., Simpson, D.D., Joe, G.W. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1978) [Pubmed]
  7. Client evaluations of drug abuse treatment in relation to follow-up outcomes. Simpson, D.D., Lloyd, M.R. The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse. (1979) [Pubmed]
  8. Postsynaptic integration of glutamatergic and dopaminergic signals in the striatum. Kötter, R. Prog. Neurobiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Molecular identification and characterization of a novel nuclear protein whose expression is up-regulated in insulin-resistant animals. Ikeda, K., Emoto, N., Matsuo, M., Yokoyama, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. A revised treatment typology based on the DARP. Cole, S.G., James, L.R. The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse. (1975) [Pubmed]
  11. DARPP-32 expression arises after a phase of dysplasia in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Ebihara, Y., Miyamoto, M., Fukunaga, A., Kato, K., Shichinohe, T., Kawarada, Y., Kurokawa, T., Cho, Y., Murakami, S., Uehara, H., Kaneko, H., Hashimoto, H., Murakami, Y., Itoh, T., Okushiba, S., Kondo, S., Katoh, H. Br. J. Cancer (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Ontogeny of human striatal DARPP-32 neurons in fetuses and following xenografting to the adult rat brain. Naimi, S., Jeny, R., Hantraye, P., Peschanski, M., Riche, D. Exp. Neurol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Identification of a dopamine- and 3'5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kD (DARPP-32) in parathyroid hormone-producing cells of the human parathyroid gland. Meister, B., Askergren, J., Tunevall, G., Hemmings, H.C., Greengard, P. J. Endocrinol. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Characterization of a duocarmycin-DNA adduct-recognizing protein in cancer cells. Asai, A., Yano, K., Mizukami, T., Nakano, H. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. The case for drug abuse treatment effectiveness, based on the DARP research program. Sells, S.B., Simpson, D.D. British journal of addiction. (1980) [Pubmed]
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